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shoppingplum.us EDITOR-IN-CHIEF JOURNAL MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE Roger D. Shanks (14) P. Kononoff, Chair (14) R. M. Akers (15) S. Pollock (ex officio) University of Illinois University of Nebraska Virginia Tech American Dairy Science Association / Roger D. Shanks M. J. Miller (16) L. Adam (ex officio) [email&#;protected] University of Illinois University of Illinois American Dairy Science Association DAIRY FOODS R. Jimenez-Flores, Board Liaison E. E. Connor (17) P. Studney (ex officio) Mary Anne Drake, Senior Editor (15) Cal Poly State University USDA, Beltsville, MD American Dairy Science Association North Carolina State University [email&#;protected] Phil Tong, Editor (16) Cal Poly State University EDITORIAL BOARD [email&#;protected] R. M. Akers (15) VA (PM) F. Harte (15) TN (DF) N. Odongo (13) Canada (NFC) John McKillip, Editor (16) H. G. Bateman II (13) OH (NFC) A. Hassan (13) SD (DF) K. ODriscoll (13) England (PM) Ball State University J. Blum (14) Switzerland (PM) S. Hiss-Pesch (15) Germany (PM) O. sters (13) Norway (PM) [email&#;protected] B. Bradford (13) KS (NFC) J. Jamrozik (15) Canada (GB) S. Pyrl (13) Finland (PM) W. Chen (14) China (DF) I. Kanevsky-Mullarky (15) VA (PM) P. Rezamand (14) ID (NFC) PHYSIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT E. Connor (13) MD (PM) A. F. Kertz (15) MO (NFC) T. Schoenfuss (15) MN (DF) Geoff Dahl, Senior Editor (14) B. Corl (15) VA (PM) K. Krishnamurthy (14) IL (DF) X. Sun (15) IN (GB) University of Florida H. M. Dann (14) NY (NFC) J. Loor (13) IL (PM) E. Titgemeyer (14) KS (NFC) [email&#;protected] T. Druet (14) Belgium (GB) J. Lucey (14) WI (DF) R. L. Vallejo (13) WV (GB) Rupert Bruckmaier, Editor (14) T. Duong (13) TX (DF) J. McKillip (15) IN (DF) E. Wall (14) VT (PM) University of Bern L. Goddik (14) OR (DF) E. Memili (14) MS (GB) W. Weiss (15) OH (NFC) [email&#;protected] T. Gressley (13) DE (PM) L. Metzger (15) SD (DF) T. Wright (13) Canada (NFC) Kerst Stelwagen, Editor (14) M. Gunderson (13) IN (PM) M. Miller (15) IL (DF) SciLactis H. Hammon (15) Germany (PM) K. Moyes (15) MD (PM) [email&#;protected] Helga Sauerwein, Editor (14) University of Bonn ADSA OFFICERS [email&#;protected] President Directors K. Schmidt (16) David Beede, Editor (15) S. Rankin Kansas State University Michigan State University S. Duncan (14) University of Wisconsin Virginia Tech Executive Director [email&#;protected] Vice President G. Dahl (14) P. Studney NUTRITION, FEEDING, AND CALVES Al Kertz Champaign, IL University of Florida John Vicini, Senior Editor (14) ANDHIL LLC Monsanto Co. L. Armentano (15) Treasurer University of Wisconsin [email&#;protected] M. Schutz John Roche, Editor (15) Purdue University R. Jimenez-Flores (15) Dairy NZ Cal Poly State University [email&#;protected] Past President R. K. McGuffey L. Timms (16) Paul Kononoff, Editor (16) McGuffey Dairy Consulting Iowa State University University of Nebraska [email&#;protected] Masahito Oba, Editor (16) University of Alberta ADSA FOUNDATION [email&#;protected] C. Luhman (13), Chair M. Schutz (13), Treasurer S. Boucher (14) GENETICS AND BREEDING Land OLakes Purdue University Hubbard Feeds Georgios Banos, Senior Editor (14) M. Socha (13), Vice Chair Trustees: V. Mistry (14) Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Zinpro Corporation South Dakota State University D. McCoy (13) [email&#;protected] M. Hanigan (13), Secretary Dairy Research Inst. K. Schmidt (15) Christa Kuhn, Editor (15) Virginia Tech Kansas State University Res. Inst. Biol. Farm Anim. [email&#;protected] Jennie Pryce, Editor (14) Department of Primary Industries, FASS PUBLICATIONS STAFF Australia [email&#;protected][email&#;protected] INVITED REVIEWS Susan Pollock, Managing Editor Sharon Frick Ron Keller Louise Adam Gayle Gleichman Lisa Krohn Filippo Miglior, Editor (15) Jorge Cazares Armgard Haken Shauna Miller Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Chris Davies Christine Horger [email&#;protected] Journal of Dairy Science (ISSN ) is published monthly on behalf of the American Dairy Science As- sociation by the Federation of Animal Science Societies, Champaign, IL, and Elsevier Inc., Park Avenue South, New York, NY Business and Editorial Office: John F. Kennedy Blvd., Ste. , Philadelphia, PA Customer Services Office: Riverport Lane, Maryland Heights, MO Periodicals postage paid at New York, NY, and additional mailing offices. The electronic edition of the journal (ISSN ) is published online at shoppingplum.us

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6 TA B L E O F C O N T E N T S SYMPOSIUM & ORAL ABSTRACTS SE C T I O N A BSTRA C T PA G E Animal Behavior, Housing, & Well-Being Symposium: What Does This Study Say About Well-Being? Caveats and Considerations.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Animal Behavior, Housing, & Well-Being I.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Breeding and Genetics I.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Breeding and Genetics Symposium: Analysis of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) Data.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Breeding and Genetics II.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 David Baker Amino Acids Symposium. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 David Schingoethe Symposium: Heifer Nutrition and the Future. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Equine.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Extension Dairy Symposium: Strategies To Increase Fiber Digestibility In Lactating Dairy Cows.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Extension Swine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Gary Allee Symposium: Feeding Sick Pigs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Graduate Student Oral Competition: Master Oral I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Graduate Student Oral Competition: Master Oral II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Graduate Student Oral Competition: PhD Oral I.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Graduate Student Oral Competition: PhD Oral II.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Growth, Development, Muscle Biology, and Meat Science Symposium: Insulin Revisited.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Growth, Development, Muscle Biology, and Meat Science. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Nonruminant Nutrition: Grow-Finish Management and Nutrition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Nonruminant Nutrition: Nursery Management and Nutrition.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Nonruminant Nutrition: Sow Management and Nutrition.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Nonruminant Nutrition: Feed Processing, Ingredients, and Additives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Nonruminant Nutrition: Gut Health and Disease: Nutritional and Metabolic Impacts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Nonruminant Nutrition: Co-Products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Nonruminant Nutrition: Minerals and Vitamins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Physiology Symposium: A Lifetime of Metabolites. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Physiology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Ruminant Nutrition: Co-Products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Ruminant Nutrition: General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Amino Acids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Undergraduate Student Competition Oral I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Undergraduate Student Competition Oral II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i

7 POSTER ABSTRACTS SE C T I O N A BSTRA C T PA G E Animal Behavior, Housing, & Well-Being: Nonruminant Nutrition - Supplements and Alternative Feedstuffs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Animal Behavior, Housing, & Well-Being. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Breeding and Genetics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extension Beef/Small Ruminant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extension Swine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Growth, Development, Muscle Biology, and Meat Science. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonruminant Nutrition: Amino Acids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonruminant Nutrition: Feed Additives and Ingredients. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonruminant Nutrition: Nutritional Technologies and Feeding Strategies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonruminant Nutrition: Grow-Finish Nutrition and Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonruminant Nutrition: Nutrition and Management of Sows.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nonruminant Nutrition: Weaned Pig Nutrition and Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Odor and Nutrition Management.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physiology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ruminant Nutrition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teaching. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Author Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Keyword Index.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii

8 SYMPOSIUM AND ORAL ABSTRACTS dressed. Animal welfare science must focus on assessing three overlapping ethical concerns related to the quality of life of ANIMAL BEHAVIOR, HOUSING, AND animals: 1) ability to live natural lives through the develop- WELL-BEING SYMPOSIUM: WHAT DOES ment and use of their natural behaviors, 2) freedom from pro- THIS STUDY SAY ABOUT WELL-BEING? longed and intense fear, pain, and other negative states, and 3) CAVEATS AND CONSIDERATIONS ability to function well. This review will, therefore, provide several examples, primarily of dairy cattle, on the need for The science of animal welfare. D. C. Lay Jr.*, U.S. appropriate scientific assessment of the impact of nutrition- Dept. of Agriculture, West Lafayette, IN. al management on animal welfare. For example, bucket-fed dairy calves may be provided adequate quantities of milk to People differ in their culture, education, economic status, and grow well and remain healthy. However, they may experience values; thus, they may view an animals welfare status as good decreased welfare as result of a deprived and frustrated natural or poor based on their individuality. However, regardless of desire to suck. Similarly, replacement dairy heifers provided these human differences in perception, the actual state of wel- a nutrient dense diet in a limited quantity may consume suf- fare for the animal does exist in a range from good to poor; ficient nutrients to grow at a specific rate and remain healthy it is our difficulty to scientifically quantify this state, which while experiencing hunger and frustration due to inability to underlies our global debate on animal welfare. The science express natural foraging activity. In many cases, nutritional of animal welfare is one of collaboration and dependence of practices may be perceived as acceptable if no immediate many sciences. Simply using one scientific discipline cannot impacts on biological functioning are observed. However, ensure an adequate assessment of the state of welfare for any long-term effects of alterations in feeding behavior or motiva- animal. An animal may be well fed, productive, free of dis- tion may, in time, impact normal functioning. For example, ease, and in a state of physiologic homeostasis yet suffer from increasing competition for feed access for dairy cows has of- poor welfare. It is the objective of the research, that is, to solve ten been associated with no immediate change in feed intake a welfare problem and its basis on sound scientific measures or production level. Unfortunately, such situations may also of welfare that defines it as Animal Welfare Science. Solid lead to less desirable patterns and timing of feed consumption, animal welfare research should measure those parameters that which, when sustained, may be linked to negative production have real meaning to an animals state of welfare given the and health outcomes. Thus, it is apparent that proper identifi- specific welfare problem at hand and should strive to include cation and integration of findings in all three areas of animal the affective state of the animals in question. Our challenge welfare science are needed to interpret the true welfare impact is in assessing a subjective state; we have done quite well in of nutritional management. assessing subjective states in humans and I believe we can be Key Words: behavior, nutrition, welfare successful in nonhuman animals as well. An animal welfare scientist needs to be able to interpret data from multiple disci- plines in an objective manner. The state of an animals welfare Considerations for applying electronic measure- relies on complex interactions from many biological systems. ments in animal welfare research. A. R. Green*, Similar to the theory of Gestalt, an animals welfare is greater University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana. than the sum of its parts; therefore, measuring random parts Technology has shown the potential to advance animal wel- will not provide the whole picture. fare research. As technology improves, more opportunities Key Words: livestock, welfare, well-being arise for electronic measurement of animal responses and other characteristics of housing and husbandry. Electronic Scientifically evaluating the impact of nutritional measures can provide valuable insight, but careful consider- management on animal welfare. T. DeVries*, Uni- ation must be given to ensure appropriate application of the versity of Guelph, Kemptville, ON, Canada. technology. Electronic measurements should be validated to be trusted. Two types of validation should be considered: 1) A search of the empirical literature yields numerous citations reliability of the technology to adequately capture the animal on the impact of nutritional management on the welfare of response being measured and 2) reliability of the electronic production animals. While much advancement in this area has signal representing the response. Measurements should reflect been made, a closer look at this literature often reveals that the animal perspective, and interpretations should be within the full impact on animal welfare has not been completely ad- the realm of animal welfare science. Technology should be 1

9 applied as a tool within a broader suite of welfare indicators. described by Hart and other researchers were motivational in For reliability of the animal response being measured, the nature and, as such, could be suspended in cases where sickness technology should not interfere with the animal or alter its behavior conflicts with activities that are essential for short-term responses. Before a new technology is implemented, it should survival, care of offspring, and in some cases reproduction. be verified that the response being measured does not change Since , there has been continued research into increasing when the technology is introduced. This validation is typically our knowledge of the function and causation of sickness be- done with a comparison to some manually recorded measure- haviors. However, aspects of this information are only recently ment. For reliability of the electronic signal representing the being used on farms to identify sick animals in a group. The response, a calibration procedure should be completed before lack of species-specific indicators of these behaviors has lim- use of the equipment and at relevant intervals with contin- ited the use of sickness behavior for disease detection. While ued use of the equipment. Electronic devices may not per- sickness impacts similar changes in the motivation to perform form as expected within harsh animal environments, and their behavior across species, the species-specific indicators of how performance may change over time. Calibration of electronic these changes can be identified is still in its infancy. As animal instruments is typically done with a comparison to some stan- agriculture has expanded the more obvious behavior changes dard measurement. For welfare considerations, measurements of decreased feed and water intake become more difficult to de- should be taken at the level of the animal, to represent the ani- tect at the individual level. By understanding sickness behavior mals experience. Previous research has shown, for example, and identifying species-specific behaviors, sick animals can be that the temperature in the micro-environment of a laying hen identified sooner, appropriate technology can be used to mea- in commercial cages may be several degrees warmer than the sure changes, training of animal handlers can be improved, and temperature in the aisle where the fan control sensor is typi- housing environments can be altered to suit the needs of the cally located. Other measures of welfare may be similarly im- animals during convalescence. pacted by proximity to the animals. Measures should be inter- Key Words: health, management, sickness behavior preted within the bounds of welfare considerations and should be a part of a suite of welfare indicators. Electronic measures can offer insight to a wide range of animal management pa- Relating economics to animal welfare. G. T. Tonsor*, rameters. Within the context of animal welfare research, they Kansas State University, Manhattan. should be considered with respect to quality of life encom- This presentation will overview how economic research passing physical health, normal behavior, and affective states. and concepts apply to animal welfare discussions, debates, Not all measures are indicative of welfare, and not all impor- and policies in the United States. The presentation will pro- tant measures may be taken electronically. vide views from an economic perspective as a contribution Key Words: reliability, sensor, technology towards the sessions range of disciplines and approaches. Planned issues to discuss include the role of production costs and exercised product demand in shaping animal welfare out- Wheres Waldo? Using sickness behavior to find the comes, the divergence of voting and purchasing behavior that sick animal in the crowd. A. L. Stanton*, University has occurred in the United States, and the distinction between of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison. scientific feasibility and social acceptance. The ability to find sick animals in a group can be challenging Key Words: animal welfare, economics, policy, for people in charge of caring for animals. Specifically, in food unintended consequences animal agriculture sick animals are frequently recognized as ill by vague signs of physical and behavioral changes that are de- scribed as animals being dull or off. While some people can use these signs effectively, these signs are difficult to quantify and ANIMAL BEHAVIOR, HOUSING, are difficult to train people unfamiliar with normal animals to AND WELL-BEING I identify. To better identify sick animals in groups sickness be- havior represents an avenue to facilitate early disease detection, animal handlers can be trained in detection sooner, and environ- Integrating technology and animal welfare: Space ments can be designed to improve recovery through supporting and resource use of individual noncage laying animals natural defenses against disease during convalescence. hens. C. L. Daigle*, D. Banerjee, R. A. Montgomery, Hart first described sickness behavior as a strategic evolved re- P. Thompson, J. C. Swanson, S. K. Biswas, J. M. sponse rather than a maladaptive response to infection in Siegford, Michigan State University, East Lansing. In this paper Hart described characteristics that were consistent Little is known about individual behavior and resource use across species as indicators of illnesslethargy, anorexia, de- of laying hens housed in noncage systems. As more hens are pression, and febrile. The next great leap forward in occurred in housed in large groups and their welfare assessed accordingly, when Aubert published his hypothesis that the behaviors understanding individual hen behavior and resource use is 2

10 paramount. Therefore, a wireless body-mounted sensor system body condition score = , and days in milk = 83 22) was developed to track the location of individual laying hens in and 4 primiparous (body weight = kg, body condi- a noncage environment. The ethics of technology development tion score = , and days in milk = 81 23; mean stimulated discussion with regards to animal welfare assess- SD) Holstein cows were used in a 4 4 Latin square design ment through a Philosophy of Technology lens. Investigations with a 2 2 factorial arrangement of feeding time and diet illustrated that wearing the sensor had a minimal negative long- type. A higher (HC, forage to concentrate ratio = ) or term effect on resource use or agonistic behavior, suggesting a lower (LC, forage to concentrate ratio = ) concen- that hens habituated to wearing the sensor. Furthermore, two trate total mixed ration (TMR) was delivered at either or parsimonious sampling strategies were identified for monitor- h. The study consisted of four d periods, each with 14 ing the behavior of individually identifiable hens to facilitate d of adaptation and 7 d of sampling. A metabolic acquisition further data collection. Using this newly identified sampling system was used to monitor continuous feed intake electroni- strategy, individual hen behavior and sensor data were collect- cally. Mixed Models was used to analyze the data included ed at 19, 28, 48, and 66 wk along with physical assessments fixed effects of feeding time, diet, parity, and their interactions as described in the Welfare Quality Assessment Protocol for and random effects of period and cow within parity plus re- Poultry. Mean differences in the amount of time hens per- siduals. Provision of the TMR at vs. h increased formed different behaviors and differences in the variability of feed intake within 3 h postfeeding, from 26 to 37% of total behavior performance were assessed. These results highlighted daily intake (P < ). In cumulative terms, the amounts con- that although group averages may not change, individual hens sumed between 0 and 6 h and 0 and 9 h postfeeding were simi- may vary in their physical condition and behavioral repertoire. lar between the 2 groups. Parity and diet did not interact with We synced spatially explicit locational information from the feeding time on circadian patterns of feed intake (P > ). hen-worn sensor system with video-based behavioral obser- Despite altering the postfeeding patterns of intake, provision vations. We digitally recreated the hen enclosure in ArcMap of TMR at vs. h did not affect total daily dry matter to develop a Geographic Information System (GIS) to intake (19 kg/d). Findings demonstrate that altering eating time model hen behavior in noncage environments. By combining can alter periprandial patterns of feed intake in lactating cows. behavior and sensor data in GIS, we developed a spatiotem- Feeding time is established as a management orchestrator of poral representation of individual hen behavior. Data from 48 periprandial feeding behavior in once-daily fed dairy cows. and 66 wk was used to characterize individual hen behavior Key Words: dairy cow, eating time, intake pattern through utilization distributions, hot spot mapping, and con- specific ranging overlap calculations. Feeding and foraging were specifically targeted to identify spatiotemporal patterns Beta-agonist supplementation does not affect move- in appetitive behaviors that were or were not constrained by ment, signs of lameness, or animal welfare measures the location of the resource for its performance. Preening was of finished steers at the feedyard or packing plant. targeted as a grooming and social behavior that could indi- B. P. Holland*, M. Corrigan, J. L. Finck, J. M. Hod- cate a hens affective state. These results provide new insight gen, J. P. Hutcheson, W. T. Nichols, M. N. Streeter, D. into individual hen behavior and present a platform for a new A. Yates, Merck Animal Health, DeSoto, KS. type of agricultural research. Yet technology in agriculture is Market-ready steers (n = ; BW = kg) were evaluated a double-edged sword, especially as regards animal welfare, for movement and lameness at both the feedyard and at the and should be used when appropriate and relinquished when packing plant. Twelve pens of cattle (n = 66 steers/pen) were necessary. Integrating wildlife tracking techniques within ag- used in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were ricultural management research may provide insight into hen no -agonist (CON), zilpaterol HCl ( mg/kg; ZH) fed for welfare and can be used when developing best practices or de- 20 d and withdrawn from feed for 3 d before slaughter, or rac- signing new housing environments. topamine HCl ( mg/kg; RH) fed for 28 d before slaugh- Key Words: animal behavior, animal welfare, ter. Steers were fed a high-concentrate diet for an average of laying hen d before shipping km to a commercial packing plant. The evaluator was certified to conduct animal welfare audits (Professional Animal Auditor Certification Organization) and Timing of ration delivery regulates periprandial blinded to treatment. Evaluation was conducted in November eating behavior of dairy cows. A. Nikkhah*, Univer- using American Meat Institute guidelines. Beta-agonist sity of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran. supplementation did not affect any variables measured (P Chronophysiology of eating behavior and feed intake control ). At the feedyard, cattle were evaluated at a known point is a state-of-the-art science. The objective was to determine ef- of balking in the alley and as they exited a platform scale; at fects of feeding time and dietary forage to concentrate ratio on both locations, speed of movement (1 = walk, 2 = trot, and periprandial and h patterns of feed intake in lactating cows. 3 = run) was rated Acceptable ( > 75% walk or trot) for all Four tie stall-housed multiparous (body weight = 14 kg, treatments. Slips (%) and Falls (%) were minimal at 3

11 the feedyard. Signs of lameness were observed in % for overall (, , and C for rectal, ear, and rump CON, % for ZH, and 0% for RH steers during weigh- temperatures, respectively). Increasing respiration rate is one ing. While average speed of movement was not different of the major mechanisms used by pigs to regulate temperature, when cattle were unloaded at the packing plant, RH cattle and it appears GHS pigs were able to maintain the body tem- were rated Not Acceptable with only % walking or trot- perature with less effort, having lower RR ( vs. ting (% running). In addition, Slips and Falls were breaths per min for GHS and GTN, respectively; and , and , and and % for CON, ZH, P < ). Higher room temperatures at the time of measure- and RH steers, respectively, during unloading at the pack- ment were associated with increased RR ( to ing plant. Similarly, slightly more cattle were observed with breaths per min; P < ) although this did not dif- signs of lameness at the packing plant (, , and % fer by treatment. These data imply that metabolic differences for CON, ZH, and RH, respectively). Prod use was deemed exist between the two treatment groups whereby greater or acceptable ( < 25%) for all treatments. Vocalization at stun- lesser respiration rate is needed to maintain similar body tem- ning and inability to render an animal insensible with the first peratures. This could have implications on feed intake and effi- shot can be indicative of poor humane handling procedure ciency although housing both gilt groups together prevented us and agitated animals. Vocalization ( < 3%) and first stun ef- from collecting such data. Further quantification of treatment ficacy ( > 95%) were observed to be Acceptable for all treat- differences will allow producers to more accurately determine ments. Treatment did not affect movement although more RH the value of cooling for pregnant sows. pens were scored as running at the packing plant. In addition, Key Words: heat stress, in utero, pigs -agonist supplementation did not affect signs of lameness or other animal welfare measures at the time of shipment from the feedyard or after arrival at the packing plant. Associations between sow body lesions with body Key Words: animal welfare, -agonist, cattle condition and reproductive performance. M. Bryan*, M. Knauer, North Carolina State University, Raleigh. Heat stress in utero affects piglets later in life. B. L. The objective of this study was to determine the association Lynch1,*, J. N. Rhoades2, M. C. Lucy2, T. J. Safranski2, between vulva and shoulder lesions with body condition and 1 College of Wooster, Wooster, OH, 2University of reproductive performance for sows housed in gestation pens. Missouri, Columbia. Whiteline sows (n = 87) were measured before farrowing and Heat stress is currently an issue in the swine industry, having at breeding for the next reproductive cycle in a commercial been shown to decrease reproductive performance of boars farm in eastern North Carolina. Following weaning, sows were and sows as well as alter growth and composition of grow- housed in gestation stalls for 40 d and then allocated to pens of ing pigs. Climate change and leaner production pigs, which are 4 to 5 sows ( or m2 per sow, respectively). Vulva le- naturally more susceptible to heat stress, may accentuate this sions were scored 0 (no lesion) or 1 (lesion present). Shoulder issue. These factors make it important to study heat stress in lesions were scored 0 (no lesion), 1 (abrasion), or 2 (open). an attempt to quantify the production stages most vulnerable, Sow body condition measures included a Knauer sow caliper allowing the industry to make adjustments accordingly. The (CS), weight (WT), body condition score (BCS), backfat (BF), objective of this study was to measure postnatal effects of in and longissimus muscle area (LMA). Backfat and LMA were utero heat stress on thermal properties of growing pigs. Preg- measured from a 10th rib cross-sectional image by a Real- nant sows were placed in the Brody Environmental Chambers Time ultrasound technician. Visual BCS was scored on a 1 to under either heat stressed (C: gestational heat stress 5 scale by an experienced technician. Sow production traits in- [GHS]) or thermoneutral (C: gestational thermoneutral cluded number born alive, litter birth weight, number weaned, [GTN]) conditions throughout gestation. At d of gestation litter weaning weight, piglet survival (number weaned/(total they were moved to the same farrowing facility and housed number born + net transfer)) and wean-to-conception interval. under thermoneutral conditions. Gilt progeny (n = ) from Data were analyzed in SAS using PROC GLM for continu- these sows were weaned and moved to mechanically ventilat- ous traits and PROC GLIMMIX for categorical traits. Vulva ed, fully slatted rooms at the University of Missouri Swine Re- lesions were recorded on % of sows at farrowing and 0% search Finisher where the current work was conducted. Rectal, of sows at breeding. No shoulder lesions, abrasions, and open ear, and rump temperatures and respiration rate (RR) were re- wounds were recorded on , 0, and 0%, respectively, of corded twice weekly from 3 to 6 mo of age. Room temperature sows at farrowing and 73, 21, and 6% of sows at breeding, re- was recorded each time pig temperatures were taken, and they spectively. The incidence of vulva lesions at farrowing was as- ranged over time and time of day from to C. Body sociated (P < ) with a lower CS, WT, BCS, BF, and LMA weights were recorded every 3 wk from 2 to 6 mo of age. Data at farrowing, reduced (P < ) piglet survival (%), and a were analyzed using mixed model procedures (Proc Mixed; lower (P < ) BCS at breeding. Sows with a lower CS at SAS Inst.). Temperatures were similar for GHS and GTN pigs farrowing had a greater (P < ) incidence of shoulder abra- 4

12 sions and open lesions at breeding. Backfat at farrowing had a show that the effect of the farm of origin on meat quality vari- curvilinear association (P < ) with open shoulder lesions ation can be explained by its impact on the behavior of pigs in at breeding with a BF of cm minimizing open lesions. response to the preslaughter handling procedures. Body condition score at farrowing had a curvilinear relation- Key Words: behavior, farm, meat quality ship (P < ) with shoulder abrasions at breeding with a BCS of minimizing abrasions. As WT and LMA at breeding decreased the occurrence of abrasions tended to increase (P < The impact of pellet quality on production effi- ) and open shoulder lesions increased (P < ). Results ciency and pig behavior in heat-stressed and ther- showed vulva and shoulder lesions were generally associated moneutral environments. J. M. Langdon II1,*, E. van with thinner sows but had little impact on reproductive per- Heugten1, A. C. Fahrenholz1, C. R. Stark1, C. E. Phil- formance. Although statistically significant, body condition lips2, M. Knauer1, 1North Carolina State University, measures explained little variation in lesion scores (r2 ). Raleigh, 2Murphy-Brown LLC, Rose Hill, NC. Key Words: lesion, reproduction, sow Two studies evaluated the impact of pellet quality on produc- tion efficiency and pig behavior in differing environments. Pigs (n = ) were housed in one of two adjacent environ- Effect of the farm system on the behavioral re- mental rooms, heat-stressed (HS) or thermoneutral (TN). Both sponse preslaughter and on meat quality variation the HS and TN environments were replicated 3 times. Aver- in pigs. L. M. Rocha1, 2,*, A. Dalmau3, A. Velarde3, L. age daily highs and lows for HS were 32 and 23C and for Saucier1, L. Faucitano1, 2, 1Universit Laval, Quebec, TN were 14 and 11C. Pigs were housed individually in pens QC, Canada, 2Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, Sher- ( m2) with woven wire flooring, cup waters, and open-faced brooke, QC, Canada, 3IRTA, Animal Welfare Group, feeders. Cornsoy diets were manufactured at the NCSU Feed Monells, Spain. Mill to contain 1 of 5 levels of pellet fines: 0, 15, 30, 45, or The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the 60%. Different levels of pellet fines were created by separating farm system on the behavior response at the plant and on meat the pellets from the fines and then adding the fines back to the quality variation in pigs. A total of 24 loads and animals pellets at the desired ratio. At an average weight of from 12 farms, 5 animal welfare certified farms (n = ; kg, barrows and gilts were randomly assigned to treatments WEL) and 7 conventional (n = ; CON), farms were as- for 21 d. Weekly pig weights, feed consumption, pig behav- sessed at unloading (UN) and in the lairage alley (LA) at the ior, respiration rate (breaths per min), and rectal temperature plant. The assessment was conducted using an audit protocol, (RT) were collected. Pig behavior was categorized as drinking, where criteria of the Welfare Quality and American Meat In- eating, standing, or resting. Statistical analysis was performed stitute protocols were merged. Pigs were loaded onto a two using analysis of variance. Pen was the experimental unit identical pot-belly trailers driven by two drivers (A and B) when evaluating pellet fines and room was the experimental who were rotated between types of farms each week. A sub- unit when comparing HS and TN environments. Level of pel- sample of pigs (60 pigs/2 farms) was randomly chosen let fines was not associated (P ) with ADFI or ADG in at the plant for meat quality evaluation. Meat quality was as- either HS or TN. A 10% increase in pellet fines numerically sessed in the Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle at 24 h post- reduced (P ) G:F in HS and TN by and mortem by measuring ultimate pH (pHu), color, and drip loss. , respectively. A 10% increase in pellet fines was Meat quality and behavior data were analyzed by the GLIM- associated with lower (P < ) RT for both HS and TN on d MIX and MIXED procedure of SAS. Spearman correlations 0 (C and C , respectively) and were performed to determine the relationship between the d 14 (C and C , respectively). swine behavior and meat quality variation using SAS. When Level of pellet fines did not impact (P < ) behavior. How- transported by driver B, pigs from WEL farms were harder ever, a 10% increase in pellet fines numerically increased (P to unload than pigs from CON farms as shown by the greater ) the percentage of time observed eating in HS and TN by percentage of turn-back ( vs. %; P = ) and slips and % , respectively. Heat stress had similar ( vs. %; P < ). The WEL pigs also presented a (P = ) ADFI ( vs. kg), tended (P = ) to have greater ( vs. %; P = ) number of falls in the LA lower ADG ( vs. kg), and had similar (P = ) G:F compared to CON. Overall, turn-back attempts and reluctance ( vs. ) in comparison to TN. Respiration rate and RT to move, both indicators of a fear response, appear to contrib- were greater (P < ) for HS in comparison to TN on d 7 (95 ute to slips at UN (r = , P < and r = , P < , vs. 34 and C vs. C, respectively) and d 14 (71 vs. 30 respectively). When compared to CON pigs, the LT muscle and C vs. C, respectively). Results are in disagree- of WEL pigs presented greater drip loss ( vs. %; P = ment with previous findings associating pellet quality and pig ). The greater number of slips at UN and in the LA ap- performance. Differences in experimental design, specifically pears to contribute to a greater drip loss (r = , P < housing and feeder type, may have contributed to the results. and r = , P < , respectively). The results of this study Key Words: growth, heat stress, pellet 5

13 Identifying characteristics of slow-growing pigs BREEDING AND GENETICS I from birth to 9 wk of age and growth performance responses to feeder space postweaning. Y. He1,*, J. Deen1, G. C. Shurson2, Y. Li3, 1University of Min- Improving accuracies of genomic predictions by nesota, St. Paul, 2University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, enriching 50K genotypes with markers from K 3 University of Minnesota, West Central Research and genotypes at QTL regions. M. Saatchi*, D. J. Garrick. Outreach Center, Morris. Iowa State University, Ames. Slow-growing (SG) pigs can be characterized as those that More accurate genomic predictions were expected using high- have less BW per day of age than their contemporaries and density marker panels such as Illumina BovineHD BeadChip negatively affect profitability and animal well-being in pork (K) rather than Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChips (50K) production systems. Limited feeder space allowance may fur- due to greater linkage disequilibrium between markers and ther suppress growth of SG pigs after weaning. The objectives quantitative trait loci (QTL). Results from field data showed of this study were to identify characteristics and investigate little advantage for K panels in dairy cattle populations. We the effect of feeder space allowance on growth performance compared accuracies of genomic predictions for birth, wean- of SG pigs during the nursery period. Pigs (n = ) were ing, and yearling weights in Hereford cattle using 50K, im- weighed individually at birth and weaning at 4 wks of age puted K, or enriched 50K genotypes (50K genotypes plus and categorized as slow (the lightest 30%), fast (the heaviest imputed K genotypes at locations of the largest QTL). A 30%), and normal (the middle 40%) growth based on BW/ total of animals were genotyped with the 50K panel. For day of age at nursery exit (9 wks of age). Pigs were randomly these animals, genotypes for about , markers were im- allotted to pens (8 pigs/pen; m2/pig) with 1 of 2 feeder- puted using BEAGLE software from Irish and U.S. space treatments: 1) 5 feeder spaces/pen (5SP) or 2) 2 feeder Hereford cattle genotyped with K. Only those markers im- spaces/pen (2SP) by covering 3 of the 5 spaces. Pigs were puted K genotypes located at Mb on BTA5, 38 Mb on weighed individually at 1, 3, and 5 wks after weaning. Focal BTA6, 93 Mb on BTA7, and 4 Mb on BTA20 and their two 1 pigs (n = 96) consisting of 48 slow and 48 fast growing pigs Mb flanking windows (USDA_AIPL assembly) were added to were used to determine rate of feed consumption at 55 d of 50K genotypes to make enriched 50K genotypes ( addi- age. Data were analyzed using the Mixed Procedure of SAS tional markers). Six-fold cross-validation was performed using with repeated measures. Slow-growing pigs provided 5SP had five groups for training and the sixth group for validation using greater ADG during wk 1 to 3 ( vs. kg/d, either 50K, imputed K, or enriched 50K genotypes. Der- respectively; P < ), wk 3 to 5 ( vs. egressed estimated breeding values were used as observations kg/d, respectively; P = ), and the overall 5-wk nursery in a weighted analysis that estimated marker effects to derive period ( vs. kg/d, respectively; P < ) molecular breeding values (MBV). Bivariate animal models than those provided 2SP. Compared with fast-growing pigs, were used for each trait to estimate the genetic correlation be- SG pigs had lighter birth weight ( vs. kg, re- tween trait and MBV as a measurement of the accuracy of ge- spectively; P < ) and lower ADG ( vs. nomic prediction. The accuracies of MBV for birth, weaning, kg/d, respectively; P < ) during the nursery period and and yearling weights were , , and using 50K slower growth rate ( vs. kg/d; P < ) genotypes, , , and using K genotypes, and by nursery exit. Slow-growing pigs ate slower ( vs. , , and using enriched genotypes, respective- g/min; P < ) than fast-growing pigs. These results ly. These correlations are equivalent to proportionate increases suggest that SG pigs have low birth weight and lower feed in the additive genetic variance explained for these traits of 0, consumption rates and, consequently, have reduced growth 9, and 5% using enriched 50K genotypes, respectively. These rates during the nursery period. Providing more feeder space results show that the accuracies of genomic predictions can improved growth rate of SG pigs during the nursery period. be increased for some traits by using just those markers from Key Words: feed consumption rate, feeder space, slow- higher density genotypes at QTL regions. growing pigs Key Words: accuracy, genomic breeding values, genomic selection Haplotype diversity analysis in ten U.S. cattle breeds. H. Su*, J. E. Koltes, M. Saatchi, J. Lee, R. L. Fernando, D. J. Garrick, Iowa State University, Ames. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) between SNP markers is com- monly reported in scientific publications because it may reflect 6

14 the extent of linkage phase between QTL and SNP marker, traits when the training sets comprised single (or multiple) which is fundamental information for association studies and breeds, respectively. These results demonstrate the feasibility genomic selection. Some studies have demonstrated that SNP of developing DGV for U.S. Maine-Anjou beef cattle. Also, in strong LD are organized into discrete blocks or haplotypes, the accuracies of DGV were slightly lower when multiple which may be separated by recombination hot spots. Haplo- other unrelated breeds were added to the training population types are of direct scientific interest as they may be in perfect for Main-Anjou animals. To strengthen the advantages through LD with QTL alleles, and they cause the observed LD between a multiple breed training population, further studies to detect SNP markers. In this study, we reconstructed haplotypes with- common QTL segregating in Maine-Anjou and to find better in each 1-Mb SNP window for 10 U.S. cattle breeds genotyped markers with greater LD across multiple breeds is required. with the Illumina BovineSNP50K. Then, we investigated the Key Words: genomic breeding values, single or diversity of common haplotypes, which we defined as those multiple breed, U.S. Maine-Anjou beef cattle that were observed at a frequency of at least 1 in in each breed. The average number of common haplotypes across the entire genome was 18 and ranged from 15 to approximately 25 Improving the accuracy of genomic prediction of in individual breeds. Some specific windows showed consis- milk fat yield in the New Zealand Holstein Friesian tent increased or decreased haplotype diversity in all breeds. population. M. K. Hayr1,*, M. Saatchi1, D. Johnson2, Low haplotype diversity was observed in some windows of D. J. Garrick1, 1Iowa State University, Ames, 2LIC, most chromosomes for all the breeds. This information pro- Hamilton, New Zealand. vides direction for future studies to characterize haplotype This study investigated the effect of including a QTL for milk diversity in relation to annotated gene-rich regions, published traits, DGAT1, in calculating direct genomic values (DGVs). QTL, selection signals, and loss-of-function mutations. Illumina SNP50 (50K) genotypes and deregressed estimated Key Words: beef cattle, haplotype diversity, linkage breeding values (DEBVs) for fat yield were provided by LIC disequilibrium for Holstein Friesian cows and bulls. DGAT1 genotypes were provided for cows and bulls, with DGAT1 genotype imputed for the remaining cattle using Comparison of genomic breeding values based on BEAGLE. Four models were run in GenSel using Bayes B single or multiple breed reference populations in method and fivefold cross-validation with % of SNPs as- U.S. Maine-Anjou beef cattle. J. Lee*, M. Saatchi, D. sumed to have an effect on the trait: 1) a model relying on J. Garrick, Iowa State University, Ames. linked 50K markers to pick up the effect of DGAT1, 2) a The efficiency and advantage of predictors that use genomic model with 50K markers and DGAT1 dosage fit as a random information have been identified through previous papers that covariate, 3) a model with 50K markers and DGAT1 geno- reported accuracy when the training sets comprised individu- type fit as a fixed class, and 4) a model with 50K markers and als from their own purebreds. Several U.S. beef cattle breed DGAT1 dosage fit as a fixed covariate. These models were run associations have been making an effort to take advantage of separately for males and females and each sex was run twice, genomic predictors in their cattle evaluations. The objective once with only animals with DGAT1 directly genotyped and of this study was to estimate accuracies of genomic breed- then with all animals. Accuracy was defined as the correlation ing values using Illumina BovineSNP50 genotypes for the three growth traits (birth, yearling, and carcass weights) in Table Regression coefficients and correlations between DEBV U.S. Maine-Anjou beef cattle using single or multiple breed and DGV training populations. In single breed analyses, only Maine- Direct Direct and imputed DGAT1 DGAT1 Anjou animals were used in training. Maine-Anjou animals Sex Model b r b r were clustered into five groups using K-means clustering for Males 50K cross-validation for the purpose of reducing the relationships 50K + DGAT1 between training and test populations. In multiple breed analy- (Random Covariate) ses, direct genomic values (DGV) of the growth traits for about 50K + DGAT1 (Fixed Maine-Anjou animals were estimated using phenotype Class) and genotype data that, in addition to Maine-Anjou, includ- 50K + DGAT1 (Fixed Covariate) ed about animals from nine other breeds (AAN, RAN, Females 50K BRG, SIM, GVH, RDP, BSH, CHA, and HER) in the training 50K + DGAT1 (Random population. Accuracies of genomic breeding values were cal- Covariate) culated as simple correlations between deregressed estimated 50K + DGAT1 (Fixed Class) breeding values (DEBV) used as observation data and DGV. 50K + DGAT1 (Fixed The accuracies of direct genomic values were (), Covariate) (), and () for birth, yearling, and carcass weight 7

15 between DEBV and DGV while bias was represented in terms ent 1 mo after booster vaccination minus antibodies present at of the regression coefficient of DEBV on DGV. Performance time of initial vaccination (overall response). The estimated was very similar in models 1 and 2 while results for models heritability of initial response to the vaccine was 3 and 4 were also very similar. Models 3 and 4 performed at time of initial vaccination (P = ). However, we did better than models 1 and 2. When all animals were included, not find evidence that the booster or overall response to the the models with 50K markers plus DGAT1 as a fixed class or vaccine was heritable (h2 = for booster and h2 = a fixed covariate performed equivalently. When only animals for overall response; P < ). We conclude that directly genotyped for DGAT1 were analyzed the model with the initial humoral response to this E. coli OH7 vaccine 50K markers plus DGAT1 as a fixed covariate had the low- is moderately heritable. If vaccine response is heritable, we est bias while the model with 50K markers plus DGAT1 as a may be able to identify cattle that are genetically predisposed fixed class had the highest accuracy. These results were con- towards mounting a more protective immune response. sistent across both sexes. These results suggest that including Key Words: Escherichia coli OH7, heritability, DGAT1 genotype as a fixed class or a fixed covariate when vaccine response calculating DGVs both increases accuracy and reduces bias. Key Words: dairy, DGAT1, genomic prediction Genotype environment interaction in Red Angus cattle in the United States. W. R. Lamberson1, D. Heritability estimation for Escherichia coli Fennewald2,*, R. L. Weaber3, M. Kaps4, 1University of OH7 vaccine response in beef cattle. K. Mar- Missouri, Columbia, 2Univeristy of Missouri, Colum- ley1,*, L. A. Kuehn2, J. Keele2, B. Wileman3, 4, M. G. bia, 3Kansas State University, Manhattan, 4University Gonda1, 1South Dakota State University, Brookings, of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia. 2 USDA-ARS, Clay Center, NE, 3Epitopix LLC, Willmar, Genotype environment interaction (GE) can be defined as MN, 4Kansas State University, Manhattan. a reranking of genetic merit estimates of parents when prog- Humoral vaccine response has been shown to be heritable for eny are produced in different environments. Increasing use of several bovine vaccines. However, heritability for response to artificial insemination in the beef industry broadens the use of an E. coli O vaccine in cattle has not been estimated. Our bulls across production environments. One approach to mea- objective was to estimate the heritability of humoral response suring GE is to consider different production environments to a commercially available E. coli O vaccine. Crossbred as separate traits and estimate genetic correlations between cattle from various proportions of 16 different breeds (Angus, traits defined in this way. Previous researchers have suggested Hereford, Red Angus, Shorthorn, Brahman, Brangus, Beef- that a genetic correlation between environments of greater master, Santa Gertrudis, Braunvieh, Charolais, Chiangus, than indicates little evidence of GE. The objective of Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, Limousin, Salers, and Simmental) this study was to estimate the magnitude of GE by estimat- in the USMARC Germplasm Evaluation Program (n = ) ing genetic correlations across production environments. Data were vaccinated with a commercially available E. coli O for birth weight, weaning weight (n = 74,), postweaning vaccine (Epitopix, LLC, Willmar, MN) and then received a gain (n = 39,), and stayability (n = 28,) were provided booster shot 1 mo after the initial vaccination. Three blood by the Red Angus Association of America. Records were as- samples were collected: 1) time of initial vaccination (d 0), signed to nine regions: Corn Belt, desert, Gulf Coast, lower 2) time of booster vaccination (d 30), and 3) approximately 1 plains, mountains, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, south, and mo following booster vaccination (d 60). Antibodies present in upper plains. To be included in the analysis, bulls had to pro- plasma that were specific for the siderophore receptor and po- duce at least 50 calves in at least two regions. Each region rin (SRP) proteins used in the vaccine were measured with an was considered a separate trait and genetic correlations were enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in parallel with estimated by using ASReml. For the three growth traits there positive and negative controls. Sample-to-positive (S/P) ratios was no evidence of GE. Genetic correlations between pairs were calculated from ELISA optical densities for each sample. of regions were all or greater. However, for stayability, Of the calves included in the study, had antibodies genetic correlations were lower ranging from (between circulating in their blood at time of initial vaccination (S/P > the lower plains and Pacific) to (between the desert and ). These animals were not analyzed further because upper plains). Averaged across regions, the upper plains was the presence of circulating antibodies at initial vaccination mostly highly genetically correlated with other regions, with could have interfered with vaccine response. Vaccine response an average genetic correlation of , the average genetic cor- was defined as the difference between 1) antibodies present at relation of the desert, Gulf Coast, and south with other regions time of booster shot minus antibodies present at time of ini- was intermediate, ranging from to , and the lowest tial vaccination (initial response), 2) antibodies present 1 mo average genetic correlations ranged from to for the after booster vaccination minus antibodies present at time of Corn Belt, lower plains, mountains, Northeast, and Pacific. In booster vaccination (booster response), and 3) antibodies pres- general, genetic correlations were highest between similar re- 8

16 gions, mountains and upper plains, and hot regions including the generally deeper coverage and the homogeneous, haploid the desert, gulf, and southeast. In conclusion, there is little nature of haplotypes as compared to individuals. An itera- evidence for GE for growth traits, but stronger evidence for tive algorithm to take advantage of these concepts has been GE exists for stayability suggesting that care should be taken developed and is being tested on a 13 kb region surrounding when selecting sires to produce replacement heifers. the myostatin gene on beef bulls (including 80 sireson Key Words: cattle, genetic correlation, genotype pairs) of seven breeds and their crosses that have genomic environment interaction, stayability sequence at an average depth of approximately 2X. This al- gorithm is based on the alternative paradigm of determining the underlying haplotypes directly from the sequence data and pedigree and then deriving genotypes (if needed) and BREEDING AND GENETICS SYMPOSIUM: performing other analyses subsequently. USDA is an equal ANALYSIS OF NEXT GENERATION opportunity provider and employer. SEQUENCING (NGS) DATA Key Words: low-coverage NGS data Utilization of sequence on relatives to improve Applications of high-throughput sequencing for analysis of individuals low-coverage NGS data. R. fertility, demography, and genome improvement. J. M. Thallman1,*, T. S. Kalbfleisch2, 1USDA, Agricultural E. Decker*, R. D. Schnabel, J. F. Taylor, University of Research Service, U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, Missouri, Columbia. Clay Center, NE, 2Intrepid Bioinformatics, Louisville, KY. New sequencing technologies have allowed researchers to Low-coverage sequence data is expected to have low call tackle new problems and revisit old ones. At the University rates under the prevailing paradigm under which genotypes of Missouri we are using Illumina sequencing to identify loss- are first called from sequence data of each individual in- of-function mutations in influential artificial insemination dependently and subsequent analyses (including determi- sires. We are sequencing each bull to high coverage (approxi- nation of haplotypes) are dependent on those called geno- mately 30X) to accurately call homozygous and heterozygous types. However, provided + individuals are sequenced, genotypes within individual animals. Using this information the number of haplotypes present in the region surrounding a we can identify variants that are predicted to have deleteri- gene should typically be considerably smaller than the num- ous effects on gene products or are never observed as homo- ber of individuals, so the effective sequence coverage per zygotes. Many of these will be embryonic lethals, which are haplotype should be considerably higher than the coverage reducing fertility rates in beef cattle. We are also using whole- per individual, especially for the most heavily represented genome sequences to infer the effective population sizes of haplotypes. Given a set of haplotypes spanning the popula- cattle over time. This will allow us to identify the changes tion for a defined genomic region, the likelihood of each se- that have altered the genomes within and among breeds of quencing read of an individual (that has been mapped to that cattle. Perhaps most importantly, we are using new sequenc- region) having originated from each of the haplotypes can be ing technologies to improve the assembly for the cattle refer- computed. Pooling those likelihoods over the reads of each ence genome. In addition to existing Sanger data, the bovine individual provides the likelihood of each individual having genomics community is generating Illumina and PacBio data each haplotype, and conditioning on the pedigree through a that will be used to close gaps and more accurately scaffold peeling algorithm provides the probability distribution for the reference genome sequence. Each sequencing technology each individuals paternal and maternal haplotypes. Provided has its own strengths and weaknesses. By combining different an individual has + sequencing reads and there is suffi- sequencing technologies we harness a technologys strength cient pedigree structure, these distributions should often be and use complimentary technologies to overcome its weak- relatively unambiguous. The probabilities of assigning hap- nesses. We are also working to annotate regulatory elements lotypes to each individual are combined with the likelihoods throughout the bovine genome, as nearly three quarters of of the reads to compute posterior probabilities that assign causal mutations for quantitative traits seem to lie within non- reads to haplotypes. For individuals whose haplotypes are coding regulatory elements. These improvements will allow determined unambiguously, there are three possible cases: researchers to more easily identify important variants. the read is assigned unambiguously to the haplotype if the Key Words: assembly, genome, sequencing individual is homozygous, the read will usually be assigned unambiguously if the individual has two haplotypes with dif- ferent sequences corresponding to the read, and the read will be assigned with equal probability to two haplotypes with identical sequences corresponding to the read. The reads as- signed (probabilistically) to each haplotype are pooled over individuals and assembled to improve its sequence, aided by 9

17 well. These results indicate that a more detailed analysis and/ HMM-ASE: A hidden Markov algorithm for ascer- or the use of a combination of callers are necessary if the live- taining cSNP genotypes from RNA sequence data in stock industry is to fully utilize genome resequencing infor- presence of allelic imbalance. H. Wang*, Michigan mation to improve livestock breeding. The authors gratefully State University, East Lansing. acknowledge financial support from the Swiss Cattle Breeders Association (ASR) and the Swiss Commission for Technology RNA-seq is a revolutionizing technology for transcriptome and Innovation (CTI), and USDA-NIFA project analysis, which is being increasingly used for nucleotide- Key Words: next generation sequencing centric inference. Allelic specific expression provides promis- ing information on relating gene expression with phenotypic variation. The commonly used ASE testing requires a prior ascertainment of the cSNP genotypes for all individuals. In BREEDING AND GENETICS II realizing these needs, we propose a hidden Markov method (HMM-ASE) to call SNPs from RNA sequence data. The proposed method can accommodate ASE in the RNA data. Validation of the effects of a SNP on SSC4 Simulation and real data applications results demonstrate that associated with viral load and weight gain in piglets our proposed HMM-ASE has an improved accuracy and sen- experimentally infected with PRRS virus. A. Hess1,*, sitivity in SNP calling. Moreover, HMM-ASE is advanced in N. Boddicker2, R. R. R. Rowland3, J. K. Lunney4, J. C. calling cSNP from low-coverage RNA-seq data comparing to M. Dekkers1, 1Iowa State University, Ames, 2Genesus, some existing methods. Oakville, MB, Canada, 3Kansas State University, Key Words: hidden Markov model, RNA-seq, SNPs Manhattan, 4USDA, ARS, BARC, APDL, Beltsville, MD. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is Computational resources to facilitate variant dis- the most costly disease to the U.S. pork industry, and vac- covery and analysis. J. M. Reecy1,*, C. Baes2, 3, E. cines, biosecurity measures, and proposed methods for eradi- Fritz-Waters1, J. E. Koltes1, M. Dolezal4, B. Bapst3, C. cation have had limited success. The aim of the PRRS Host Flury2, H. Signer-Hasler2, C. Stricker5, R. L. Fernando1, Genetics Consortium (PHGC) is to identify genomic markers D. J. Garrick1, F. Schmitz-Hsu6, B. Gredler2, M. Vaugh7, and pathways associated with host response to PRRS virus 1 Iowa State University, Ames, 2Bern University of Ap- (PRRSV), which could potentially be used for genetic selec- plied Sciences, Zollikofen, Switzerland, 3Qualitas AG, tion of pigs for increased resistance or reduced susceptibility Zug, Switzerland, 4Universit degli Studi di Milano, to the virus. Boddicker et al. () identified a SNP on SSC4 Milano, Italy, 5agn Genetics GmbH, Davos, Switzerland, (WUR) for which the favorable allele (B) was as- 6 Swissgenetics, Zollikofen, Switzerland, 7Texas Advance sociated with reduced viral load (VL) and increased weight Computing Center, University of Texas, Austin. gain (WG) under infection with the NVSL PRRSV isolate. The objective of this study was to test the effects of Next generation sequencing has facilitated the sequencing of this SNP when infecting pigs with a genetically different iso- large numbers of individuals for variant detection. A challenge late of PRRSV (KS), which has 89% amino acid facing the livestock industry is the establishment of efficient sequence identity with NVSL in GP5. Following workflows to process raw sequence data to accurate variant the same experimental design, approximately commer- data such that implementation of whole genome sequence cial crossbred piglets per trial for a total of 5 trials were ex- information in livestock breeding programs can be accom- perimentally infected with PRRSV at 28 to 35 d of age. Blood plished. Within the iPlant infrastructure, we have implement- samples and weights were collected periodically for up to 42 ed currently available variant calling techniques and have ap- d postinfection (dpi). Viremia was measured using a qPCR plied them to a dairy cattle data set. The Burrows-Wheeler assay for PRRSV RNA, and VL was defined as the area under aligner (BWA) was used to align paired end Illumina reads the curve of Log viremia from 0 to 21 dpi. WG was defined as from 66 bulls to the Bos taurus UMD reference assembly. weight gain from 0 to 42 dpi. Analyses were performed using A pipeline, integrating data preparation, insertion and deletion PROC MIXED in SAS (v), with trial nested with parity realignment, base quality score recalibration, and variant call- and the number of B alleles for the SSC4 SNP as fixed effects, ing, was created to manage variant calling comparisons. Vari- weight and age at infection as covariates, and litter and pen ant calling was done using three different calling methods: nested within trial as random effects. Consistent with previ- UnifiedGenotyper of the Genome Analysis Tool Kit, SAM- ous findings, individuals that were heterozygous for the SSC4 Tools Mpileup, and Platypus. A total of nine different options SNP had greater WG ( kg; P = , nAA = , were compared with these methods. Significant variation in nAB = ) and lower VL ( units; P < , nAA the ability of the different methods calling of variants was ob- = , nAB = 86) compared to their AA counterparts. The size served. Furthermore, tremendous variation in the concordance of the effect for the SSC4 SNP was approximately half the of variant calling and SNPchip genotyping were observed as 10

18 reported value for the NVSL isolate for WG ( Alberta Livestock and Meat Agency, Genesus Inc., and State vs. kg) but comparable for VL ( of Iowa and Hatch funds is appreciated. vs. units). These results suggest this SSC4 marker Key Words: lactation, GWAS, sow may be useful for genetic selection of pigs for increased resis- tance or reduced susceptibility to PRRSV isolates that differ genetically and possibly in pathogenicity. This work was sup- Meta-analysis genomewide association of pork ported by Genome Canada, USDA ARS, and breeding compa- quality traits: Ultimate pH and shear force. Y. L. nies of the PHGC and PigGen Canada. Bernal Rubio1, 2,*, J. L. Gualdrn Duarte2, R. O. Bates1, Key Words: genetic selection, PRRS, SSC4 C. W. Ernst1, D. Nonneman3, G. A. Rohrer4, A. King3, S. D. Shackelford3, T. L. Wheeler3, R. J. C. Cantet2, J. P. Steibel1, 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, Identification of genomic regions associated with 2 Department of Animal Science, University of Buenos sow lactation performance in Yorkshire pigs. D. M. Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 3USDA/ARS, Clay Thekkoot1,*, R. A. Kemp2, M. F. Rothschild1, G. Plas- Center, NE, 4USDA, ARS, U.S. Meat Animal Research tow3, J. C. M. Dekkers1, 1Iowa State University, Ames, Center, Clay Center, NE. 2 Genesus Inc, Oakville, MB, Canada, 3University of It is common practice to perform genomewide association Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. analysis (GWA) using a genomic evaluation model of a single Lactation is an energy demanding process for sows. The ob- population. However, the joint analysis of several populations jective of this study was to identify genomic regions in sows is more difficult. An alternative to joint analysis could be the related to lactation and litter growth through a genomewide meta-analysis (MA) of several GWA from independent ge- association study (GWAS). Data from litters from nomic evaluations, which allows combining results from in- Yorkshire sows that were genotyped using the Illumina por- dividual studies, so as to account for population substructure. cine 60K Bead chip were used. The sows were weighed and The objectives of this research were 1) to produce GWA from scanned for back fat and loin depth before farrowing and at genomic evaluations for pork quality traits in three popula- weaning and piglets were weighed at birth, weaning, and tions and 2) to implement a MA searching for significant asso- death. The GWAS focused on total weaning weight (TWW), ciations across pig populations. Data from two U.S. Meat Ani- litter weight gain (LWG), sow weight loss (WL), back fat loss mal Research Center populations (Commercial and MARC) (BFL), and loin loss (LL). Estimates of heritability were mod- and one Michigan State University population (MSU) were erate () for WL but low for all other traits (). The used. Population-specific GWA were performed by fitting ge- GWAS was implemented separately for parity 1 (N = ) and nomic evaluation models to each population for ultimate pH parity 2 (N = ) trait phenotypes using the BayesB method (n = Commercial, n = MARC, and n = MSU) in the GENSEL software. A 1 Mb region on chromosome 2, and shear force (SF; n = Commercial, n = MARC, which exhibited strong linkage disequilibrium, explained 59% and n = MSU). A MA was implemented by combining z- of the genetic variance for TWW and 48% for LWG for parity scores derived for each SNP in every population using two dif- 2 phenotypes but less than % of genetic variation for parity ferent weighting schemes: 1) sample size (N) and 1) estimated 1 records. The same region explained the highest proportion variance of SNP effects. One peak at SSC15 was identified of variance for BFL for parity 2 records (%) but less than for pH in MSU and in the Commercial populations ( Mb, % of genetic variance for LL and WL in both parities. The p-value < e for MSU and MB, p-value < e favorable allele of the most significant SNP in this region had for Commercial). In the N-weighted MA, a peak was detected a frequency of and the genotypes were in Hardy Weinberg on SSC15 at position Mb (p-value < e). A virtual- equilibrium. To further evaluate the effects of this SNP, it was ly identical result was obtained using variance-weighted MA: included as a fixed class effect in an animal model analysis of a peak on SSC15 at Mb, p-value < e For SF, GWA parity 1, 2, and 3 records as an interaction with parity. Geno- for MSU showed one peak on SSC15 ( Mb, p-value < type effects for parities 2 and 3 were significant for LWG, e-8) and another peak on SSC2 ( Mb, p-value < e- TWW, LL (P < ), and BFL (P = and ) but were 8). GWA detected peaks for SF on SSC2 at positions Mb not significant for parity 1 (P > ). For TWW, estimates of for Commercial (p-value < e-7) and at Mb for MARC allele substitution effects were , , and kg for parities population (p-value < e-7). The variance-weighted MA 1, 2, and 3, respectively, and , , and kg for LWG. detected one peak on SSC2 ( Mb, p-value < e) and Positional candidate genes for this region are associated with another one on SSC15 ( Mb, p-value < e-7). In con- monosaccharide metabolic processes. It can be concluded that trast, N-weight MA yielded two peaks on SSC2, at Mb this region on SCC2 had a significant impact on litter growth and at Mb (p-value < e and e-6, respectively). traits for Yorkshire sows in parity 2 and later. These results Based on our results, selecting a weighting scheme for MA- can aid in marker assisted selection but need further validation GWA is very important because it may influence the results. in other samples and breeds. Funding from Genome Alberta, Regardless of the approach used, MA-GWA revealed peaks 11

19 that were present in at least two populations. Thus, MA-GWA the favorable allele A from G31E increased from in gilts methodology is an attractive alternative to synthesize results unable to generate a parity to in sows that generated 3 from multiple GWA derived from genomic evaluations and it parities. These differences suggest that selection based on can be used to elucidate the genetic architecture of economi- SNPs such as G31E and GD have the potential to reduce cally relevant traits, when several populations are available. age at puberty and improve reproductive longevity, leading to Key Words: genomewide association, meta-analysis, an increase in sow net values in commercial herds. USDA is pork quality an equal opportunity provider and employer. Key Words: AVPR1A, longevity, swine AVPR1A alleles are pleiotropic sources of variation in age at puberty and reproductive longevity in Variation in host genetics influences PCVAD sows. M. D. Trenhaile1,*, K. L. Lucot1, J. K. Tart1, J. W. susceptibility. T. B. Engle1,*, E. E. Jobman1, T. W. Bundy1, J. F. Thorson2, E. M. Keuter1, J. R. Wood1, M. F. Moural1, A. M. McKnite1, S. Y. Barnes1, E. H. Davis1, Rothschild3, G. A. Rohrer2, P. S. Miller1, M. L. Spangler1, J. W. Bundy2, T. P. Johnson1, J. K. Qiu1, J. A. Galeota1, C. A. Lents2, R. K. Johnson4, S. D. Kachman4, D. C. S. P. Harris1, M. F. Rothschild3, R. K. Johnson1, G. S. Ciobanu1, 1University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 2USDA, ARS, Plastow4, S. D. Kachman1, D. C. Ciobanu2, 1University U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, Clay Center, NE, of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, 2University of Nebraska, 3 Iowa State University, Ames, 4University of Nebraska- Lincoln, 3Iowa State University, Ames, 4University of Lincoln, Lincoln. Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Age at puberty is a moderately heritable trait and an early Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2), the causative agent of Por- indicator of sow reproductive longevity. Gilts that express cine Circovirus Associated Diseases (PCVAD), affects growth first estrus early are characterized by improved reproductive and can lead to mortality. Host genetics influences susceptibil- longevity and lifetime productivity. These traits are depen- ity and plays a role in PCVAD progression. The objective of dent on the function of the hypothalamicpituitarygonadal this research was to identify major genetic variants and genes axis, and their variation is expected to be affected by the same that influence immune response and PCVAD susceptibility. genes. Genomewide association analyses uncovered a region Various crossbred lines were experimentally infected with a on SSC5 ( Mb) that partially explained the phenotypic PCV2b strain similar to a cluster of PCV2b strains known to variation of age at puberty and lifetime number of parities. induce clinical signs of PCVAD and high mortality. During a The main candidate gene in this region, arginine vasopressin d experimental challenge, weekly measurements of aver- receptor 1A (AVPR1A), involved in biological processes as- age daily gain (ADG), viremia, and PCV2-specific antibodies sociated with reproductive and social behavior, was character- were profiled. Common sources of variation were evaluated ized to assess its efficiency as a selection marker for early age by estimating pairwise correlations between phenotypic and at puberty and increased reproductive longevity. The GG gen- genomic prediction values and by genomewide associations otype of a nonsynonymous SNP located in AVPR1A (G31E) across traits. Viremia was the best indicator of decreased was associated with a d earlier expression of first estrus ADG following infection; moderate phenotypic correlations compared with genotype AA (P < ) and a d earlier between viremia and ADG were observed starting with vire- expression than genotype AG (P < ). The GG genotype mia at 14 d postinfection (dpi) and ADG during the last 2 wk was also associated with more lifetime parities than AA of challenge (r = to ; P < ). The correlation (P < ) and more than AG (P < ). Irrespective of between overall ADG ( d) and viral load was In age at puberty, sows with the GG genotype had a higher prob- contrast, the correlation between ADG and PCV2-specific an- ability of generating first and second parities than sows with tibodies, IgM ( to ) and IgG ( to ), were AA and AG genotypes (P < ). AVPR1A is expressed in weak. Correlations between genomic prediction values were the pituitary, granulosa cells, and ovarian cortex. Sequencing the largest between viremia at 21 dpi and ADG during the last AVPR1A in gilts exhibiting puberty early ( d, n = 8) 3 wk of challenge ( to ; P < ). A genome- and late ( d, n = 8) uncovered two novel nonsynony- wide association study that included 56, SNPs uncovered mous SNPs (GD and KQ). SNP GD is located in two major SNPs that explain (ALGA, SSC12) the third intracellular loop of AVPR1A and was in complete and % (ALGA, SSC7, Mb), respectively, of linkage disequilibrium with G31E, located in the extracel- the genetic variation for viral load. The SNP ALGA lular NH2terminus, which has a role in agonist binding and is located next to the SLA II complex of genes known for their intracellular signaling. The SNP KQ is located at the C role in immune response. These SNPs partially explained the terminus, involved in coordinating protein interactions with negative correlations between viremia and ADG. The geno- AVPR1A. A difference in allelic frequency was observed type CC of ALGA was associated with lower viral between gilts that expressed puberty early and late for G31E load () compared to genotype TT (; P < ) and and GD compared to for KQ. The frequency of genotype CT (; P < ). Genotype CC was also asso- 12

20 ciated with higher overall ADG ( kg) compared to geno- tions of phenotypic variation similar to that obtained from type TT ( kg; P < ) and genotype CT ( kg; P high-density SNP panels. < ). These results could lead to increased knowledge of Key Words: genomic prediction, puberty, swine the swine immune system and identification of genes involved in PCVAD susceptibility. Selection of parent stock based on DNA markers associated with PCVAD has the potential to re- Variance component estimates for alternative litter duce economic losses, improve animal welfare, and provide size and piglet mortality traits. A. M. Putz1,*, K. A. alternatives to vaccination. Gray2, M. Knauer1, 1North Carolina State University, Key Words: genetics, PCVAD, swine Raleigh, 2Smithfield Premium Genetics, Rose Hill, NC. The objective of this study was to estimate variance compo- nents for litter size and mortality traits at different time points. Genomic prediction of age at puberty in sows using Traits analyzed included number born alive (NBA), litter size Bayesian methods. K. L. Lucot*, M. L. Spangler, S. at d 2 (LS2), litter size at d 5 (LS5), litter size at d 30 (LS30), D. Kachman, D. C. Ciobanu, University of Nebraska, piglet mortality at d 5 (MortD5), and piglet mortality at d 30 Lincoln. (MortD30). Day 30 was chosen for two reasons: 1) The aver- Including DNA markers in selection programs is potentially age wean age over the 4 yr was d and 2) it is important more efficient than traditional selection for improving traits to include mortalities from early docking in the nursery phase. that are expensive or difficult to measure. The challenge of Data were obtained on Large White litters from Smith- genomics is the lack of robustness of marker effects across field Premium Genetics collected from June through populations and over time (generations) and the cost to com- May Data management and phenotypic analyses were mercial producers of high-density arrays. The objective of this completed with the R statistical environment. Litter size traits study was to analyze differences in the proportion of pheno- were the number of pigs alive on the respective number of days typic variation explained by different fractions of major 1 Mb postfarrowing. All mortality traits were calculated as percent- windows and SNPs. Using a population of Nebraska Index age of dead pigs from TNB on each of the respective days post- Line and commercial Large White Landrace females (n = farrowing, including stillborn piglets. Genetic analyses were ) generated in 11 batches, we conducted a genomewide completed using the BLUPF90 family of programs. A basic association analysis for age at puberty (AP) using a Bayes B animal model was fit with fixed effects of parity, yearsea- algorithm with a pi value of and the concatenation of son, and farm and random effect of permanent environment. diet and batch fitted as a fixed effect. A total of 56, SNPs Two-trait models were fit between all combinations of traits. explained of the phenotypic variation for AP. Analysis Heritability estimates of traits were averaged over the models of the genetic variance explained by 1 Mb windows across in which they were involved. All traits were treated as traits the genome uncovered major regions associated with AP. The of the birth sow, ignoring cross-fostering effects. Heritability proportion of the phenotypic variation explained by all SNPs estimates for NBA, LS2, LS5, LS30, MortD5, and MortD30 within the top 1, 5, 10, and 20% windows varied from were , , , , , and , respective- (1% windows; SNPs) to (10% windows; 19, ly. Phenotypic variance estimates for NBA, LS2, LS5, LS30, SNPs). In contrast, the proportion of the phenotypic variation MortD5, and MortD30 were , , , , , explained by the most informative SNP from these windows and , respectively. Phenotypic and genetic correlations varied from (1% windows; 24 SNPs) to (20% win- between LS2 with NBA, LS5, LS30, MortD5, and MortD30 dows; SNPs). Different pi values (0, , , , and were , , , , and and , , , ) had a limited effect on the proportion of phenotypic , and , respectively. Phenotypic and genetic corre- variation explained by the top 1 ( to ) and 10% ( lations between LS5 with NBA, LS30, MortD5, and MortD30 to ) windows. The first seven batches were used as train- were , , , and and , , , and ing data (B1B7, n = ) to evaluate the ability of major , respectively. LS2 or LS5 could be used as alternatives SNPs and windows to predict AP in subsequent batches. The to NBA as the main component trait of maternal line breeds to pooled simple correlation between genomic prediction values increase NBA and decrease preweaning mortalities. (GPV) and adjusted AP phenotypes was in B8 through Key Words: genetic correlation, litter size, B11 (n = ) when 56, SNPs were used. When GPV were piglet mortality derived using the most informative SNP from each of the top 10% windows or all SNPs from the top 10% windows identi- fied in training, rGPV,AP was and , respectively. Weaker Divergent selection for age at puberty impacts sow correlations were obtained when the most informative SNP reproduction. C. L. Ferring*, M. Knauer, North Caro- or all of the SNPs from the top 1% windows were used for lina State University, Raleigh. prediction ( and , respectively). These results showed The objective of the study was to associate selection for age at that a limited number of SNPs were able to explain propor- puberty with first litter reproductive performance. Estrous data 13

21 Table First litter reproductive performance for gilts diver- Table Genetic correlations between litter quality traits for gently selected for age at puberty Landrace (above diagonal) and Large White (below diagonal). Genetic Line CV_ CV_ Young age Old age TNB NBA BWT BWT NW QWP WWT WWT Trait at puberty at puberty SE P-value TNB Number born alive NBA Average birth weight, kg BWT Litter birth weight, kg CV_BWT Number weaned Average weaning weight, kg NW Litter weaning weight, kg QWP Exhibited estrous by 7 d after 88 58 WWT weaning, % CV_WWT was collected from a cohort of PIC Landrace Large White gilts (n = ) at the NCDA Tidewater Research Station. Gilts ber born alive (NBA), litter birth weight (BWT), CV_BWT, were placed in curtain-sided buildings on fully slotted floors number weaned (NW), QWP, litter weaning weight (WWT), in groups of 15 ( m2 per pig). Fans and timed misters were and CV_WWT. Variance components and genetic correla- used for cooling once temperatures reached 27C. Starting at tions were estimated with ASReml using two trait models. All d of age, each group of gilts was penned with three mature models included fixed effects of contemporary group (herd boars for 7 min daily and estrous behavior recorded. Puberty year month) and parity, a covariate of age at first farrowing, was defined as the first observed standing reflex to the back- and a random effect of sow. Models for BWT and WWT also pressure test. Both a young and an old age at puberty group of included NBA and NW, respectively, as a covariate. Heritabil- gilts (average age at puberty and d, respectively) were ity estimates for TNB, NBA, BWT, CV_BWT, NW, QWP, kept for breeding. Both groups of gilts were mated to the same WWT, and CV_WWT for Landrace were , , , 12 boars and farrowed during the same month. Sow reproduc- , , , , and , respectively, and for Large tive traits measured included number born alive, average birth White were , , , , , , , and , weight, litter birth weight, number weaned, average weaning respectively. Phenotypic variance estimates for TNB, NBA, weight, litter weaning weight, and whether a sow exhibited BWT, CV_BWT, NW, QWP, WWT, and CV_WWT for Land- estrus by 7 d after weaning (W2E_7). Analysis of variance race were , , , , , , , and , was used to analyze continuous reproductive traits and a chi- respectively, and for Large White were, , , squared analysis was used for the categorical trait, W2E_7. , , , , and , respectively. Genetic cor- Table 1 shows the first litter reproductive performance of relations between litter quality traits for both Landrace and the young and old age at puberty groups. Of the first litter Large White are shown in Table 1. Results suggest that selec- reproductive traits measured, only W2E_7 differed (P < ) tion for TNB may increase litter variation in birth and wean- between puberty groups. The current study found a younger ing weight. However, selection for QWP may decrease litter age at puberty did not impact litter traits but had a substantial variation in birth weight for Landrace and reduce litter varia- impact on postweaning expression of estrus. Results suggest tion in weaning weight for both Landrace and Large White. that selection for a younger age at puberty would improve an Key Words: genetic, reproduction, sow important component trait of sow longevity, W2E_7. Key Words: gilt, puberty, reproduction Genetic relationships and inbreeding coefficients of swine breeds. K. Roberts*, W. R. Lamberson, Univer- Estimates of variance components for swine litter sity of Missouri, Columbia. quality traits. E. B. Cook1,*, M. T. See1, K. A. Gray2, Genetic diversity allows adaptation to environmental changes M. Knauer1, 1North Carolina State University, Raleigh, and varied disease resistance. Without such diversity, a popu- 2 Smithfield Premium Genetics, Rose Hill, NC. lation could be decimated by disease or environmental fluc- The objective of the study was to estimate variance compo- tuations. Swine breeds facing extinction share characteristics nents for swine litter quality traits, including three new litter such as small size, slow growth rate, and high fat percentage, traits: number of piglets weaned weighing kg (QWP), which eliminate them from the high-input high-output busi- CV for piglet birth weight (CV_BWT), and CV for piglet ness of commercial production. Small populations and lack weaning weight (CV_WWT). Reproductive data and pedi- of genetic information increases the chance that producers gree information were obtained for Landrace (n = ) and are breeding closely related individuals, which ultimately Large White (n = ) litters from Smithfield Premium Ge- eliminates genetic diversity by increasing levels of homo- netics. Litter traits included total number born (TNB), num- zygosity in subsequent generations. By making genetic data available, producers can make more educated breeding deci- 14

22 Table the monogastric feed formulation done today. This concept, Breed n R F however, is rooted in close to 80 yr of research, with work Guinea 14 a a and debate continuing today. The initial concepts of an ideal Ossabaw Island 10 b b protein, a profile of amino acids that most closely resembled Red Wattle 5 bc a an intact protein such as whole egg, were revised to a profile Saddleback 22 a d of amino acids that most closely met the requirements of an Mulefoot 4 d ab animal for maintenance and growth through construction of Duroc 20 a a a purified crystalline amino acid diet for young chicks. The Landrace 20 e c elucidation of nonspecific amino nitrogen requirements, in- Large White 20 ef c terconversion among amino acids, and antagonisms between Pietrain 20 f c amino acids further refined the ideal protein concept. The ini- Tamworth 20 c b tial implementation of the Ideal Protein for commercial live- sions to preserve genetic diversity in future generations. Hair stock production occurred in , when the British Agricul- samples were collected from Guinea, Ossabaw Island, Red ture Research Council proposed an ideal protein for swine that Wattle, American Saddleback, and Mulefoot pigs and geno- presented essential amino acids requirements as a percentage typed with the Porcine 60K SNP chip. Publicly available ge- of lysine, with is first-limiting amino acid for protein depo- notyping data were obtained for British Saddleback, Duroc, sition in most swine diets. From this point, much work was Landrace, Large White, Pietrain, and Tamworth pigs. PLINK done to estimate the ratios of essential amino acids relative to was used to construct a genomic relationship matrix and to lysine that maximized performance. Much work has continued calculate inbreeding coefficients. The following table summa- to focus across multiple physiological states, from growth to rizes average relationships (R) between individuals (n) within pregnancy and lactation. The impact of immune challenge and a breed, and average inbreeding coefficient (F) of individu- nutrient composition of diets have been studied to determine als within a breed. American Saddleback and British Saddle- their role in ideal protein requirements. This concept has been back showed relatedness across the two breeds, so they were applied across livestock species as well as companion animals. combined. The model was significant (P-value < ) and Key Words: history, ideal protein, pigs significant differences across breeds are indicated by super- scripts ( ). Popular breeds (Landrace, Large White, and Duroc) exhibit lower levels of R between individuals, on Current knowledge about ideal protein for growing average, as compared to R between individuals of endangered pigs. J. van Milgen1,*, N. Le Floch1, E. Corrent2, M. breeds, especially Ossabaw Island, Red Wattle, Mulefoot, and Gloaguen1, 1INRA, Saint Gilles, France, 2Ajinomoto Tamworth. Following a similar pattern, F is high for Ossabaw Eurolysine, Paris, France. Island, Tamworth, and Mulefoot and low for Large White and Improving the efficiency of nitrogen use and maintaining per- Landrace. While less common in the United States, Pietrain formance can be achieved by reducing the crude protein con- is a popular breed in Europe, which likely accounts for low tent of diet while ensuring that amino acid requirements, de- R and F values. Having complete pedigrees and large popu- fined as the minimum amino acid supply required to obtain a lations allows commercial breeds to maintain low levels of maximum response, are met. The use of synthetic amino acids R and F within a population. For heritage type breeds, lack and analogues allows formulating diets where 7 amino acids of popularity means fewer individuals to select among, and, are co-limiting for performance (i.e., Lys, Met, Met+Cys, Thr, within a viable populous, even fewer have known pedigrees. Trp, Val, and a seventh amino acid). Knowledge of the require- This research is the first step toward preserving genetic diver- ments of these amino acids has been a limiting factor for the sity by providing producers with accurate genetic information. further reduction of protein content in the diet and thus for im- Key Words: swine genetics proving the efficiency of nitrogen utilization. Doseresponse experiments are usually performed to estimate the amino acid requirement. The experimental design, the mode of express- ing the amino acid supply, the response criterion used, and the DAVID BAKER AMINO ACIDS statistical analysis method affect the amino acid requirement SYMPOSIUM estimates. Very little experimental evidence exists for the re- quirements of amino acids such as Val, Ile, Leu, His, Phe, and Tyr. Our group has performed an experimental research pro- A short history of ideal protein. N. R. Augspurger*, gram to study the response of piglets to the supply of these JBS United, Inc., Sheridan, IN. amino acids. In addition, meta-analyses were used to analyze The Ideal Protein concept, defined as an ideal pattern of ami- the existing body of literature. Based on current knowledge no acids is one that meets requirements for the sum of meta- and expressed on a standardized ileal digestible basis relative bolic processes with minimal excesses, is applied in much of to Lys, our recommended ideal amino acid profile for grow- 15

23 ing pigs is 30% Met, 60% Met+Cys, 65% Thr, 22% Trp, 70% pen. Initial BW for the 3 experiments were , , and Val, 52% Ile, % Leu, 31% His, 54% Phe, and 40% Tyr. kg, respectively. Dietary treatments in all experiments were 1) For the amino acids we have studied, these estimates include High CP, High Lys, and High Trp:Lys (HHH), 2) Low CP, High a safety margin because requirement estimates were obtained Lys, and High Trp:Lys (LHH), 3) Low CP, Low Lys, and High using a curvilinear-plateau model, ensuring that the require- Trp:Lys (LLH), and 4) Low CP, Low Lys, and Low Trp:Lys ment of most pigs in the population is met. A 10% deficiency (LLL). Data were analyzed using Proc Mixed with pen as the relative to the requirement results in a growth reduction of , experimental unit. Lowering CP (HHH vs. LHH) did not influ- , , , , , and % for Trp, Val, Ile, Leu, His, Phe, ence performance in any experiment, except G:F were greater and Tyr, respectively. The reduction in growth was mostly due in HHH compared to LHH in Exp. 1 and 3. Decreasing lysine to a reduction in feed intake. An excess supply of an amino (LHH vs. LLH) reduced ADG and G:F in Exp. 1 but did not acid can reduce the availability of other amino acids due to significantly reduce ADG or G:F in Exp. 2 or 3. Decreasing competition for catabolism and transport. For example, the Trp:Lys ratio (LLH vs. LLL) decreased ADG and G:F in all use of blood cells (high in Val, Leu, His, and Phe) increases experiments. It appears that Lys was not as limiting as expect- the Ile requirement while excess Leu aggravates the effect of ed in Exp. 2 and 3, but pig performance was improved when a Val deficiency. Knowledge of the response of animals to the Trp:Lys was increase from to 20%. In conclusion, a low amino acid supply allows formulating diets with a precision CP diet formulated % below the SID Lys requirement at protein profile that approaches that of ideal protein. the end of the dietary phase appears to be valid to ensure pigs Key Words: amino acids, ideal protein, pigs are below their Lys requirement to test the Trp:Lys ratio. Key Words: amino acids, pigs, tryptophan Validating dietary approach to determine the Trp:Lys ratio for pigs. M. A. D. Goncalves1,*, M. Effect of feeding reduced-CP, amino acid supple- D. Tokach1, S. S. Dritz1, K. J. Touchette2, J. M. DeR- mented diets on dietary nitrogen and energy utiliza- ouchey1, J. C. Woodworth1, R. D. Goodband1, 1Kansas tion and volatile fatty acid excretion in wean-to-finish State University, Manhattan, 2Ajinomoto Heartland, swine. A. M. Jones1,*, D. T. Kelly1, B. T. Richert1, C. V. Inc., Chicago, IL. Maxwell2, J. S. Radcliffe1, 1Purdue University, West La- fayette, IN, 2University of Arkansas, Fayetteville. Three experiments were conducted to validate a dietary ap- proach to determine the optimal standardized ileal digestible Thirty-two barrows (initial BW kg) were used to (SID) Trp:Lys ratio for pigs. Cornsoybean mealbased diets evaluate the effect of feeding reduced-CP, amino acid (AA) with 30% DDGS were used with different SID Trp:Lys ratios supplemented diets on nutrient and VFA excretion. Pigs were ( vs. 20%), CP (3% points difference), and SID Lys levels randomly allotted to the following diets: 1) Control: Corn (% below requirement at the end of the phase vs. % SBMDDGS diets with no synthetic AA, 2) 1X reduction in above requirement at the beginning of the phase). Lysine re- CP, 3) 2X reduction in CP, and 4) 3X reduction in CP. Diet 4, quirements were estimated using NRC () model. All ex- the 3X reduction in CP, was balanced on the seventh limiting periments had 11 pens/treatment, were 21 d in duration, and AA. Diets 2 and 3 were then formulated to have stepwise and used to gilts (PIC ) with 24 to 28 pigs/ equally spaced reductions in CP between Diets 1 and 4. Diets 2 through 4 were supplemented with synthetic amino acids Table as needed to meet amino acid needs based on NRC () Diet HHH LHH LLH LLL SEM requirements. All diets were formulated to have identical ME Exp. 1 content. Feed was supplied twice daily at approximately 95% CP, % of ad libitum intake for each dietary phase to minimize orts. SID Lys, % Four nursery phases (d 07, d , d , and d ) ADG, g c c b a and 5 growfinish phases (21 d phases) were fed. Pigs were G:F d c b a housed in stainless-steel metabolism pens ( m2) equipped Exp. 2 with a nipple waterer and stainless steel feeder. Two pigs were CP, % housed per pen during the nursery phase, with one pig be- SID Lys, % ing removed on d 42 postweaning. Collections started with ADG, g b b b a G:F b b b a nursery phase 3 and during nursery phases pigs were allowed Exp. 3 an 8-d adjustment period to the diets followed by a 3 d total CP, % collection of feces, urine, and orts. During the GrowFinish SID Lys, % phases, pigs were acclimated to diets for the first 10 d of each ADG, g c bc b a phase, and then feces, urine, and orts were collected for 3 d. G:F a b b c Acetic (P < ), propionic (P < ), and butyric acid (P a,b,c,d P < < ) concentrations in the feces were linearly decreased by 16

24 , , and %, respectively, as dietary CP was reduced modeled or determined based on the growth of the sow-fetal from control to 3X. Calculated DE and ME values based on unit. Therefore, pregnant sows should be fed to their changing analyzed GE content of feed, feces, and urine were linearly individual needs throughout their reproductive to achieve opti- reduced (P < ) with increasing reductions in dietary CP mal performance return from both sows and offspring. (DE: , , , and kcal/kg; ME: , , Key Words: amino acids, pig, pregnancy , and kcal/kg). A tendency (P = ) for a linear reduction in dietary N intake (% lower in 3X vs. Control) was observed, which was partially responsible for the % Abstract withdrawn linear reduction (P < ) in N excretion (, , , and g/d). In conclusion, low CP diets with synthetic AA result in lower DE and ME values for the diet but significantly reduce N and VFA excretion. DAVID SCHINGOETHE SYMPOSIUM: Key Words: nitrogen retention, swine HEIFER NUTRITION AND THE FUTURE Novel approaches to estimating amino acid require- Future perspective on accelerated milk replacer ments and amino acid ratios in diets fed to gestating feeding. J. G. Linn*, N. B. Litherland, University of sows. S. Moehn*, R. O. Ball, University of Alberta, Minnesota, St. Paul. Edmonton, AB, Canada. Accelerated milk replacer feeding can be defined as feeding Nutrition of pregnant sows has received little attention in the a high enough plane of nutrition from liquid feeding to meet recent past, in part because of the time needed to conduct con- maintenance requirements and provide nutrients to support ventional experiments in sows. We conducted experiments the genetic potential for growth rate. Traditional milk replacer specifically designed to determine requirements in early (EG) feeding practices have focused on meeting maintenance re- and late gestation (LG) for amino acids (AA), using the indi- quirements and modest growth rates early in the liquid feeding cator AA oxidation technique, and for energy using indirect phase followed by starter grain intake for enhanced growth late calorimetry. Because the indicator AA oxidation technique in the liquid feeding phase and before weaning. Data clearly only needs 2 to 3 d of adaptation, 6 6 Latin square experi- support advantages to increasing the plane of nutrition early ments to determine AA requirements could completed within in the calfs life to support growth rates that double birth body a 3-wk period, and the same animals could be tested in EG and weight by weaning. Enhanced early life stage nutrition likely LG. The implantation of subcutaneous vascular access ports induces cellular changes and hormonal signaling that prepare allowed the study of protein turnover and metabolomic pro- the calf to take advantage of a nutrient rich environment later files in the same sows in consecutive parities. in life for expression of true genetic lactation potential. New models for pregnant sow requirements add up the Implementation of feeding a higher plane of nutrition AA and energy deposition in body components, together with during the liquid feeding phase has been met with some chal- estimates of maintenance, and then apply estimates of the ef- lenges in the field. Not all calves have accepted the higher nu- ficiency of AA and energy utilization to calculate require- trient intake well and the greater amounts of nutrient delivery ments. These models can calculate requirements for a wide through liquid feeding have reduced starter grain intake and range of physical and performance characteristics of sows. delayed rumen development. The introduction of automated Although there is some disagreement among models and em- calf feeding systems or feeding liquids more than twice daily pirical data regarding the absolute values of requirements, the through traditional methods may be ways to avoid the sati- core results are similar. In agreement with our empirical data, ety effects. Additionally, precision feeding programs, such as these models predict much greater requirements for AA in feeding on a percentage of body weight, can potentially op- LG vs. EG and a decrease in AA requirements with increas- timize nutrient intake per individual calf and help reduce the ing parity number. Models and empirical data indicate that risk of over- or underfeeding. Balancing nutrient intake from the changes in requirements from EG to LG and with sow both liquid and solid feeds during the liquid feeding phase age differ among AA, so that the ideal AA pattern changes will likely be the best way of achieving desired growth rates, throughout a sows reproductive life. While the ideal protein optimizing efficiency of growth, and consistently producing for pregnant gilts resembles that for growing pigs, it will be a healthy replacement heifer. closer to that needed for maintenance for adult sows in EG. Historically all milk protein milk replacers have been Therefore, the same diet may be first limiting in different AA used in accelerated calf feeding programs. Alternative non- in EG vs. LG and in gilts vs. adult sows. milk proteins are likely to replace some of the milk protein Experiments manipulating AA and/or energy allowances in accelerated milk replacers as the cost of whey protein and showed that optimal subsequent sow and piglet performance is other milk proteins increase and the use of whey in human likely achieved by feeding pregnant sows close to requirements protein supplements and food products increases. Addition- 17

25 ally, as dairy herds have become larger the use of pasteurized nonsaleable milk in replacement of a milk replacer increases. How much dietary fat should growing prepubertal Programs designed to optimize milk solids intake to achieve dairy heifers be fed? J. L. Anderson* South Dakota success as an accelerated calf feeding program are needed. State University, Brookings. Key Words: calves, milk replacer Diets for growing dairy heifers have, historically, been for- age based with very low fat concentrations. Supplemental fat has been considered uneconomical to feed to dairy heifers, Nutrition and management of automatic calf and therefore, it has become an often overlooked nutrient in feeding systems. T. Earleywine*, Land OLakes dairy heifer rations. However, with the increased interest in Animal Milk Products, Cottage Grove, WI. the use of biofuel coproducts, which are higher in fat content Since dairy calves are the only mammalian neonates that are than traditional feeds, and the high price of corn, this nutrient limit-fed milk, producers have been challenged to find ways deserves a second look. Additionally, dietary energy sources to keep them alive, healthy, and growing. Automatic calf need to be reconsidered when heifers are fed using alterna- feeding equipment has been around for decades but due to tive feeding strategies, such as precision feeding. Literature improvements in technology and the desire to find a better searches on feeding dietary fat to dairy heifers yield very lim- way their popularity has increased. Seven years of research ited findings. These findings often lead to more questions than on over calves at our facility as well as research done at answers on how fat will affect growth and development of academic institutions will be covered. The positives such as growing heifers. In contrast, there is a relative abundance of the appearance of improved welfare, potential labor savings/ research on feeding fat to mature dairy cows, dairy calves, and flexibility, higher nutrition levels provided, and more frequent beef cattle, on which most of the current recommendations for meals will be discussed. The negatives such as maintenance heifers are based. This presentation will describe key findings and cleaning, biosecurity, and potential increase in respiratory from research and suggest how to best utilize dietary fat as challenge will also be reviewed. a nutrient for growing dairy heifers. Positive effects of feed- Key Words: automatic calf feeding equipment, ing fat such as increased feed efficiency, changes in metabolic dairy calves profile, and reproductive performance will be weighed against the negative effects such as overconditioning and decreased fiber utilization. From this literature review, recommendations Formulating starter diets to meet nutrient on feeding fat will be made and potential areas for future re- requirements of dairy calves during rapid early search will be discussed. growth. J. K. Drackley and S. Y. Morrison*, University Key Words: dairy heifers, dietary fat of Illinois, Urbana. The importance of calf starters in enabling calves to make Finding the future now Health, genomics, and the transition from milk to solid feeds is well known. Starters calves. A. L. Stanton*, University of Wisconsin- must be palatable to encourage intake, must contain easily fer- Madison, Madison. mentable and digestible ingredients, and must provide a bal- anced profile of absorbed nutrients. With the renewed interest The rearing of replacement heifers and breeding of cattle has in providing increased nutrients from milk or milk replacer become much more complicated due to the increase in knowl- early in life, however, the optimal formulation of starters to edge about the longer term impacts of calf care in the first 90 d enable calves to make the transition without slumps in growth on lifetime productivity and the ability to genomically predict remains controversial. The largest uncertainties lie in predict- genetic production potential. The health of heifers under 90 ing rates of ruminal carbohydrate fermentation and the result- d of age has been shown to have long-term impacts on their ing microbial protein synthesis. Demonstrations of the ben- future productivity. This has resulted in increased focus on efits of fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides such as soluble prevention of calfhood illness. However, the question of what fiber have created opportunities for blends of carbohydrates to do with animals that have become ill is still unclear. beyond traditional cereal starches and forage or cellulosic by- The guidelines on calf nutrition have also been altered product ingredients. Increasing metabolizable protein supply and appear to have long-term impact on the productivity of has shown promise in helping calves maintain high prewean- these calves as adults. There have been several studies that ing growth rates as they transition to solid feed diets. The most have shown that improved growth due to feeding biologically important advances likely will be made by changing the focus appropriate milk levels in the first 60 d are beneficial to the from product formulation to formulating diets that support a calfs future milk production. Ollivett and colleagues () defined level of performance. Further progress in modeling found a positive impact of increasing energy allotments to would be complemented by additional research to define ru- calves on the duration of clinical signs of diarrhea. However, minal dynamics in young calves. the mechanism of this change is still unknown. Further re- Key Words: calves, growth, starter search is needed to determine how genetics and epigenetics 18

26 interact with health status and increased nutritional planes. from viewing horses as farm animals, the concept of equine Genomics is changing the dairy industry and future professional becomes both complex and ambiguous. While implications are unknown. One potential role of genetics is the equine industry continues with needs and expectations management and selection of future generations of breeding for hands-on and support work, it also calls for professionals animals. Genomics allows for improved knowledge of the with new and emerging knowledge, skill sets, and approaches. animal genetics at an earlier age. Questions on reliability of Whether a curriculum focuses on the science of horse care the results and the impact of other calf factors, such as health or the business components of the horse industry, successful and phenotype, are still being expressed by producers and preparation for the 21st century hinges on preparing profes- have anecdotally led to reluctance of producers to use this sionals to work in an environment filled with VUCA: volatility, information. For genomics to be fully integrated into the de- uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity. This term, coined in cision making at the farm level more research is needed on the late s, reflects the reality of a rapidly changing global the economic concerns of testing animals genomically, the environment that is both highly connected and largely dispa- reliability of it to find the best cows and the worst cows, and rate. Equine professionals will be best served by recognizing a decision model that includes not only genetic factors but the critical importance of thinking beyond the day-to-day re- also phenotypic factors that increase the reliability of not just sponsibilities of horse care and embracing the importance of future generations of animals but also those in the current advocacy and broad interconnectedness. As educators, it is herd and increased education of the strengths and weaknesses our job to assess the backgrounds, interests, and perceptions of these tools. of our students and develop curriculums that address current Knowledge of genetics and calf health has evolved and and future industry needs and to do so within an expanded will continue to do so. Understanding of the commercial view of the equine industry and the broader mindsets critical applications and scientific principles that underline these to growth and success. changes and how they interact will be essential for producers [1] Bump, K.D., Livermore, J, Williams, T.S. National and scientists in the future. Trends: The entering equine student population. Journal of Key Words: genomics, health, management Equine Veterinary Science 33 () Key Words: career preparation, education, equine EQUINE Development of an undergraduate online horse management course. K. L. Martinson*, M. Palmer, M. Hathaway, E. Glunk, University of Minnesota, Developing equine professionals in the 21st century. Saint Paul. K. D. Bump*, Cazenovia College, Cazenovia, NY; National Association of Equine Affiliated Academics, Online college courses can improve student academic expe- Cazenovia, NY. riences by increasing accessibility, accommodating various learning approaches, and deepening student mastery of the Developing students for careers in the equine industry can be subject matter. The purpose of this abstract is to outline the considered within the three themes of student background, development of an undergraduate online horse management industry need, and changing environment. Industry need has course. In the fall of , a horse management course was always been part of the equation but until recently there was offered online to non-Animal Science majors. A concurrent limited focus on the idea that student background should be in-class section was offered to majors. Twenty-two students considered in this process. In addition, the work environment enrolled in the online section while 29 students enrolled in the for equine professionals was much more static. Curriculums in-class section. The course aimed to provide an introduction were designed on experiences and perceptions of faculty that to the horse industry and careers, breeds, behavior, weight esti- had typically grown up around horses, and coursework was mation, body condition scoring, liability and insurance, forage geared toward students arriving on campus with an agricul- utilization, poisonous plants, pasture management, manure ture background. Today this is dramatically different and data management, facility management, grooming, safe ground from NAEAA studies [1] indicate that many students enter handling, assessing vitals, colic, hoof care, vaccinations, and with limited hands-on equine and/or agricultural background. genetics. Each week, two lectures were recorded using UM- Given this, approaches to developing equine professionals no Connect and posted on the course Moodle website along with longer start with the premise that students arrive at college a PDF handout of the lecture slides. The instructor recorded with a developed understanding of equines and the equine most lectures; however, prerecorded guest lectures were used industry. Coupled with this is the reality that the equine in- periodically. Extension factsheets and journal articles were dustry has entered a dramatically different time where even also posted as supporting learning materials, and a graduate the notion of what it means to own and care for a horse is less student assisted with course management. Each week, students clear. As society moves farther from agriculture and farther were responsible for completing either a quiz, discussion, or 19

27 exam. Throughout the wk semester, 6 quizzes, 6 discus- in knowledge contests at % is even lower, especially con- sions, and 3 exams were posted. Quizzes consisted of 10 one- sidering that states self-reported that youth may have been point multiple-choice or true/false questions that were avail- double counted if they competed in more than one knowledge able for 22 h on Moodle. Students had a maximum of 30 min contest. Interestingly, 2 states require participation in knowl- to complete each quiz and results were automatically graded edge contests for youth to compete in the state show. Sixty- and recorded in the grade book. Discussions were worth 20 two percent of the states reported that low body condition points and were available for 48 h on Moodle. To start the scores is one of the welfare issues they encounter while 56% discussion, two to three questions pertaining to the discussion of the states reported that they encounter too much roughness/ topic were posted by the instructor. Students were responsible yanking/overchecking on the reins. 4-H is well positioned to for posting at least three comments or questions during the develop educational programs to teach youth proper horse specified time. Points were manually assigned after evaluating welfare and responsible ownership, yet only five states (21%) student responses in report logs on Moodle. The three exams have an equine welfare educational program within 4-H. This consisted of 50 multiple-choice and true/false questions each information can be helpful to leaders of these programs when worth 2 points. Exams were available for 22 h and students looking for fresh ideas or possible collaborations and can im- were given a maximum of 90 min to complete each exam on prove the quality of 4-H Horse Programs. Moodle. Exam results were automatically graded and record- Key Words: 4H horse program ed in the grade book. Students were reminded each week of pending assignments via email. Although student evaluations are not yet available, offering an online undergraduate horse Influence of weight loss on skeletal muscle mito- management course appears to be a successful method for de- chondrial function and metabolism in the mature livering material to nonmajors while providing flexibility and horse. J. L. Zambito1,*, H. S. Spooner2, C. E. Nichols1, an alternative learning approach to students. R. M. Hoffman2, J. M. Hollander1, K. M. Barnes1, Key Words: online teaching, horse 1 West Virginia University, Morgantown, 2Middle Ten- nessee State University, Murfreesboro. Obesity causes a multitude of metabolic issues in horses, yet Comparative analysis of state 4-H horse programs. stepwise alterations in glucose and lipid metabolic capability, F. C. Camargo1,*, A. Lawyer1, C. Willis1, R. C. Bott2, mitochondrial capacity, and oxidant status during weight loss 1 University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2South Dakota have not been evaluated. We hypothesized that horses would State University, Brookings. display improvements in morphometric measurements, circu- 4-H is a national youth development program, which is gov- lating metabolic markers, minimal model estimates of glucose erned by land grant institutions that are given the liberty to tolerance, and insulin sensitivity during weight loss over 96 d tailor their program to the individual needs of states. This al- from an obese (7 to 8) to moderate (5) body condition score lows for programs to grow according to the interests of youth (BCS). Furthermore, skeletal muscle contains subsarcolemmal in that area. However, this system means that there is little (SSM) and interfibrillar (IFM) mitochondria, which respond communication between states about how common issues are differently to physiological stimuli; therefore, we hypoth- handled and avoided. Specifically, the 4-H Horse Program is esized horses would display improvements in mitochondrial continually faced with challenges in the horse industry such as subpopulation function and reductions in circulating oxidant animal welfare and compliance with regulations. This study status markers during weight loss sampled every other week. was designed to gather information from state 4-H Horse Pro- Horses displayed significant decreases in all morphometric grams to help each program recognize common issues and measurements (P ) except for abdominal circumference initiate collaborative approaches to develop solutions. A sur- (P = ). A decrease in rump fat thickness from to vey was distributed to 4-H horse contacts representing all 50 mm reflected decreasing body fat mass (P < ). states. Completed surveys were returned from 24 states, yield- Weight loss had no effect on circulating concentrations of glu- ing a response rate of 48%. Of those states that responded, cose or insulin measured every other week. Insulin sensitivity the average number of youth enrolled in the 4-H Horse Pro- increased from to LmU1min-1 gram was , with enrollment ranging from to 25, with both reduction in BCS and weight loss (P ). The youth. All but one state have a state 4-H horse show and 91% disposition index, an assessment of -cell function, tended of the states require youth to wear helmets at least in certain to increase with percent weight loss (P = ) but not lower events. Thirty-nine percent of respondents (9 states) do not BCS. Plasma nitrate trended to decrease in response to BCS require youth to qualify to participate in the state 4-H horse reduction and percent weight loss (P ) whereas erythro- shows. Participation in the state shows varied from 40 youth cyte total glutathione (P = ) concentration increased with to youth with a mean of youth. Thus, slightly over decreasing BCS. Mitochondrial electron transport chain com- 9% of youth enrolled in state 4-H Horse Programs nationwide plexes I and IV displayed greater activity in SSM than IFM are participating in the state 4-H horse shows. Participation (P ) while all complexes in IFM had decreased activity 20

28 due to both weight parameters P ). Interactions between age species (P ). Use of a grazing muzzle decreased subpopulation complex IV activity and weight loss markers the amount of forage consumed by an average of 30% across (P < ) were displayed. Citrate synthase activity, indicat- species and years (P < ). These results will aid horse ing mitochondrial number, was greater in SSM than IFM (P < owners and professionals in estimating forage intake and bal- ) but was unaffected with weight loss. Lipid peroxida- ancing rations of muzzled horses on pasture. tion was decreased with BCS change (P = ) and weight Key Words: grazing, intake, muzzle loss (P = ), displaying greater amounts in SSM than IFM (P ). Few changes in circulating markers along with minute alterations in minimal model parameters suggest that while horses were obese, metabolic function was conserved. EXTENSION DAIRY SYMPOSIUM: Complex activity and lipid peroxidation alterations suggest STRATEGIES TO INCREASE FIBER IFM are more affected by weight loss, with large contribu- DIGESTIBILITY IN LACTATING tions from complex IV byproducts. Mitochondrial component DAIRY COWS flexibility may contribute individually to disease development along with athletic performance in the horse. Key Words: mitochondria, muscle, obesity Agronomic practices that impact the digestibility of fiber by lactating cows. F. N. Owens*, DuPont Pioneer, Johnston, IA. The interaction of grazing muzzle use and grass Ruminal bulk fill limits intake of forage-rich diets early in species on forage intake of horses. E. Glunk*, C. C. lactation with coarse fiber being the primary contributor to Sheaffer, M. Hathaway, K. L. Martinson, University of ruminal fill. This ceiling on feed and energy intake can be lift- Minnesota, Saint Paul. ed either by reducing the dietary concentration of NDF or by Excessive pasture intakes have been linked to the increased increasing the fermentation rate of NDF (NDFD). Numerous incidence of equine obesity and pasture-associated laminitis. genetic (BMR) and environmental factors can alter NDF con- Previous research found that grazing muzzles reduced pasture tent and NDFD of forages. With most grasses and legumes, intake by 83%. However, horses are selective grazers, and NDF content increases and NDFD decreases as plants ma- forage grasses have different growth morphologies. Both fac- ture, largely due to a decreased leaf:stem ratio. Consequently, tors could impact the effectiveness of grazing muzzles; how- earlier harvest, more erect plant stature, harvesting plants at ever, this has not been investigated. Therefore, the objective greater height, and minimizing leaf loss all can increase for- of this research was to determine the effectiveness of grazing age quality. With most forages, yield increases as temperature, muzzles at reducing forage intake when horses were allowed light intensity, nitrogen fertility, and water supply increase. access to different grass species. The study was conducted in However, by accelerating maturation, higher temperatures in- and Four horses were grazed in while three crease NDF content and lignification; factors that retard plant horses were grazed in Before grazing, horses were ac- development help maintain forage quality. Unlike other tropi- climated to wearing a grazing muzzle and grazing for 4 h. cal plants, maize harvested as silage is immature and NDF Four species of perennial, cool-season grasses were grazed in digestibility will not decline if plant health is maintained dur- including: Kentucky bluegrass (KB; prostrate growth ing kernel development. Restricting supply of irrigation water habit, preferred by horses), meadow fescue (MF; upright, pre- increases NDFD of maize plants probably through increasing ferred), perennial ryegrass (PR; prostrate, less preferred), and the leaf:stalk ratio. Changes in NDF and NDFD (48 h) di- reed canarygrass (RC; upright, less preferred). In , only gestibility of various plant parts was measured for two non- KB and RC were grazed due to winter kill of PR and MF. BMR hybrids harvested across a range in plant DM from 28 Horses were allowed to graze a small pasture ( by m) to 39%. At all DM contents, maize cobs and husks had the seeded with one of the individual grass species for 4 h each highest NDF content; as plant DM increased, NDF content day for 4 consecutive days in June and August of and only for husks increased. NDF content of maize stalks at vari- August and September of Horses grazed the same grass ous heights did not differ, but NDF digestibility always was species for 2 consecutive days, 1 d with the muzzle and 1 d less for the lower stalk portions. NDFD was greatest for husks without. Before each grazing event, a by m strip was and leaves; NDFD of cobs and leaves dropped as plant DM mechanically harvested from the pasture to determine avail- increased. Plant NDFD dropped from 43 to 42% as plant DM able initial herbage mass. Postgrazing, an adjacent by increased from 28 to 40%. As lignin content increased, NDFD m strip was harvested to determine residual forage mass. The dropped for stalks. For the other plant parts, NDFD was not difference (on a dry matter basis) was used to estimate horse altered by the fractional percentages of hemicellulose, cellu- forage intake. Data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED lose, or lignin in NDF nor was it altered by ratios among these procedure of SAS, with statistical significance set at P components. As maize kernels matured from half-milk line The effectiveness of a grazing muzzle was not affected by for- to black line, kernel weight increased by over 20%. Based on 21

29 Milk equations and analysis of plant nutrients at harvest, have been measured in vivo feeding studies. The pdNDF, kd, milk yield per metric ton harvested or per hectare should peak and kp and parameters predicted by the TTNDFD model ap- at and % DM, respectively, for unprocessed maize pear to be consistent with in vivo measures. silage. Delaying harvest to and % DM, respectively, Key Words: dairy, fiber, NDF digestibility should give peak milk yield per ton or per hectare for pro- cessed maize silage. Key Words: maize, maturity, NDF Measuring forage quality of corn silage and un- derstanding the impacts on rumen fermentation in lactating dairy cattle. P. J. Kononoff*, University of TTNDFD: A new approach to evaluate forage fiber Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln. digestibility. D. K. Combs*, F. Lopes, University of Last year the USDA estimated that million tons of corn Wisconsin, Madison. silage was produced. This was up 4% from the previous year We hypothesize that an estimate of total tract NDF digest- and was also the highest production in the United States since ibility (TTNDFD) can provide useful information about fi- Given that corn silage is commonly included in diets for ber utilization. Our objective is to present an approach for dairy cattle at 30 to 50% of the DM, this crop represents an im- predicting in vivo total tract NDF digestibility from in vitro portant feedstuff to the dairy industry. Additionally, given that NDF digestibility measurements. The parameters needed to the chemical composition and nutrient availability of this feed estimate TTNDFD include the proportion of potentially di- may vary, quality of this feedstuff is central to dairy production gestible fiber (pdNDF), the digestion rate of the pdNDF (kd), and profitability. The term forage quality is often defined by the the ruminal passage rate of pdNDF (kp), and postruminal di- extent to which the forage elicits a productive response. Fun- gestion of NDF. The in vitro TTNDFD approach accounts for damentally speaking the nature of this response is dependent ruminal and postruminal fiber digestion and can be adjusted on the availability of forage nutrients to rumen microorganism. for changes in fiber passage as size or intake of the animal Plant factors that affect this availability include maturity, hy- changes. The TTNDFD method has been validated with in brid, and growing conditions. Additionally, harvesting and en- vivo experiments. In one study, Lopes et al. () compared siling practices may also affect nutrient availability and these estimates of TTNDFD as predicted by the in vitro model to include the method of chopping, length of cut, extent of kernel in vivo measurements in lactating dairy cows. Cows were fed processing, and time of ensiling. Lastly, a number of animal diets that varied in proportions of corn silage and alfalfa. The factors may also influence nutrient availability including level diets contained 55% forage and the dietary NDF concentra- of intake, nutrient demands, behavioral patterns, and animal tion was similar across treatments. Milk yields were similar health. Attributes of good quality forage usually include a high amongst diets. The observed (in vivo) TTNDFD values were intake potential, high nutrient concentration, and high digest- calculated from feed and fecal samples. Cows consuming the ibility or nutrient availability. Forage quality is commonly as- diet with alfalfa as the only forage had higher NDF digestibil- sessed through chemical and physical analysis and near-infrared ity than cows on the diets that contained corn silage. The NDF spectroscopy as well as using a number of in vivo and in vitro digestibility coefficients predicted by the in vitro TTNDFD methods. The purpose of this presentation is to review how for- method were similar to the in vivo values. The TTNDFD age quality affects rumen fermentation, microbial digestion, analysis can provide important insights into fiber utilization and how factors that affect forage quality may be manipulated by dairy cattle. The rates of fiber degradation determined from to ultimately contribute to greater milk production. the in vitro NDFD assays appear to be consistent with what Key Words: corn silage, forage quality, rumen fermentation, dairy production Table Effect of changing ratios of corn silage to alfalfa on intake, production, and fiber digestion in dairy cows. Corn silage (CS): CS 67CS 33CS 0CS The impact of nonforage fiber sources on fiber alfalfa (AS) ratio 0AS 33AS 67AS AS Corn silage, % of TMR 56 37 18 0 digestibility. B. Bradford*, Kansas State University, Alfalfa silage, % of TMR 0 19 37 55 Manhattan. Concentrate mix, % of TMR 44 44 45 45 Nonforage fiber sources (NFFS) have been used in ruminant Diet NDF, % of DM diets for many years. However, some dairy operations are now SE reaching inclusion rates of these feedstuffs that substantially DMI, kg/d ab a b c greater than the traditional target of 10 to 15% of dry matter. 4% FCM, kg/d Observed TTNDFD, a ab ab c Heavy reliance on feedstuffs with high NDF content but small in vivo particle size could potentially have major impacts on kinet- Predicted TTNDFD, ics of both fiber digestion and passage. Furthermore, when in vitro such ingredients are used to partially replace starch sources, Values within row with different superscripts differ, P < there is potential for positive associative effects on forage fi- a,b,c 22

30 ber digestion. Critical impediments to a clearer understand- versus CON. From 68 kg to harvest, pigs fed diets containing ing of NFFS-reliant diets include the lack of relevant data on NAR had a higher G:F ( vs. ; P = ) than digestion kinetics and, more importantly, the great diversity in those fed CON diets. Overall, pigs fed diets containing NAR composition and characteristics of different NFFS. Neverthe- had a faster ADG ( vs. kg/d; P = ) and an less, several studies have investigated the effects of common increased G:F ( vs. ; P = ) versus CON. Pigs NFFS on ruminal fermentation characteristics, microbial pop- fed diets containing NAR had a higher carcass weight ( ulations, and total-tract nutrient digestion. In general, NFFS- vs. kg; P = ) than pigs fed CON. In the two-study reliant diets that are formulated to support high levels of milk analysis, pigs fed NAR from to kg ( vs. production do not appear to provide an associative benefit or ; P < ) and 68 kg to harvest ( vs. or for forage fiber digestibility, nor have consistent increases ; P < ) had a higher G:F than those fed CON or VIR, in ruminal pH or shifts in rumen microbial populations been respectively. From kg to harvest, pigs fed diets contain- observed. Although empirical data are limited, sufficient ing NAR had a higher G:F ( vs. or ; P < physically effective forage NDF is likely critical for efficient ) than CON or VIR. Overall, pigs fed NAR had a higher ruminal digestion of NDF from NFFS, both by maintaining ADG, G:F, and HCW than those fed CON and a higher G:F ruminal pH and by providing a fiber mat to slow passage of than those fed VIR. the small particles. Determining the ideal forage NDF level Key Words: narasin, pigs, virginiamycin in low-starch, high-NFFS diets is key to allowing increased dry matter intake while maintaining high digestive efficiency. Key Words: byproducts, digestion, fiber, The effect of regrinding DDGS and SBM on pellet ruminal kinetics quality in swine finishing diets. W. J. Pacheco1,*, M. Knauer1, E. van Heugten1, C. R. Stark1, A. C. Fahren- holz1, C. E. Phillips2, 1North Carolina State University, Raleigh, 2Murphy-Brown LLC, Rose Hill, NC. EXTENSION SWINE The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of regrinding major feed ingredients on pellet quality in swine fin- Effects of Skycis and Stafac on growth and isher diets. Feed was produced at the NCSU Feed Mill Educa- carcass performance of finishing pigs A meta- tional Unit. Cornsoy diets contained % corn, % soy- analysis. R. A. Arentson1,*, J. J. Chewning2, S. N. bean meal (SBM), and % poultry fat (PF). Diets containing Carr3, G. L. Allee4, M. C. Brumm5, E. G. McMillan6, corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) comprised 1 Elanco, Greenfield, IN, 2Swine Research Services, 53% corn, 30% DDGS, % SBM, and % PF. Of the % Inc., Springdale, AR, 3Elanco Animal Health, PF in each diet, % was added in the mixer and % was Greenfield, IN, 4Pork Tech, LLC, Columbia, MO, added postpelleting. Six dietary treatments consisted of two lev- 5 Brumm Swine Consultancy, Inc., Mankato, MN, els of DDGS (0 and 30%), two particle sizes of DDGS ( and 6 Nutreco Canada Agresearch, Burford, ON, Canada. m), and two particle sizes of SBM ( and m). All diets were steam conditioned with the same retention time and The purpose of this meta-analysis was to summarize the effects a temperature of 82C. A by mm pellet die was used of 0 vs. 15 ppm of narasin (NAR; Skycis, Elanco Animal during pelleting. Each diet was replicated 4 times. Data were Health, Greenfield, IN; 4 studies located in Arkansas [AR], analyzed using PROC GLM in SAS. Batch was the experimen- Ontario, CA [ON], Missouri [MO], and Minnesota) and the tal unit. Models for pellet durability index (PDI) and modified effects of 0 or 15 ppm NAR or 11 ppm of virginiamycin (VIR; PDI included fixed effects of diet and time of day. Contrasts Stafac, Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ; 2 studies locat- were used to evaluate DDGS inclusion and regrinding DDGS ed in AR and ON) on the growth and harvest performance of and SBM on pellet quality. Across all diets, average PDI and pigs during the growfinish period. Pigs were blocked by gen- modified PDI was (SD = ) and (SD = ), re- der and weight and then treatments were randomly assigned spectively. Diets containing DDGS had greater (P < ) PDI to pens. Diet treatments consisted of a sequence of three to six and modified PDI in comparison to diets without DDGS ( diets containing corn, SBM, and DDGS (except ON and MO) and %, respectively). Regrinding DDGS had no effect (P > with the appropriate amount of antimicrobial premix added. ) on PDI or modified PDI. Regrinding SBM in diets without Pigs were weighed to determine initial BW, phase weights, DDGS tended (P ) to improve PDI and modified PDI ( and ADG. Feed issuance and weigh backs were recorded to and %, respectively). Within DDGS diets, regrinding SBM determine ADFI and G:F. When pigs reached harvest BW, did not improve (P = ) PDI but improved (P ) modi- they were transported to food companies to measure HCW, fied PDI by %. Across all diets, regrinding SBM improved fat depth, and loin depth. From to kg, pigs fed di- (P < ) both PDI and modified PDI ( and %, respec- ets containing NAR had a faster ADG ( vs. kg/d; tively). Batches pelleted in the morning had greater (P < ) P = ) and a higher G:F ( vs. ; P = ) PDI and modified PDI in comparison to those pelleted in the 23

31 afternoon ( and %, respectively). Results suggest adding 30% DDGS to cornsoy diets improves PDI when the level of Effects of suckling history of mammary glands on added fat in the mixer is controlled and that regrinding SBM but teat order and growth of nursing piglets during a not DDGS improves pellet quality. subsequent lactation. J. Guo1,*, G. Voilque1, Y. Sun1, Key Words: DDGS, particle size, pellet quality, A. E. DeDecker2, M. T. Coffey2, S. W. Kim1, 1North regrinding, soybean meal Carolina State University, Raleigh, 2Murphy-Brown LLC, Rose Hill, NC. The suckling history of a mammary gland, suckled or not The effect of cross-fostering on PRRS transmission suckled, has a significant impact on that glands subsequent and litter performance. B. Mason1,*, A. E. DeDeck- lactation performance. Litters of 57 first parity sows were er2, J. L. Seate3, M. F. Billing3, 1University of Illinois, used to determine the effects of suckling history on teat order Champaign, 2Murphy-Brown LLC, Rose Hill, NC, and piglet growth during a subsequent lactation. In parity 1, 3 Murphy Brown LLC, Rose Hill, NC. sows nursed either 10 or 13 piglets. Sows successfully rebred Cross-fostering is used in swine production to improve growth were used in parity 2, during which litter size was set to 10 performance and reduce mortality; however, it is unknown how piglets, and all piglets were weaned at d 21 of lactation. In much cross-fostering transfers PRRS. Therefore, the objective both parities, teat order of all sows was observed lively at least of this trial is to determine the effects of cross-fostering pro- 3 times during wk 2 and 3 of lactation. Piglet weights were grams on transmission of PRRS, piglet growth, and prewean measured at birth and weaning (d 21) in both parities. Results mortality (PWM). On a commercial sow herd, multiparous showed piglet weight gain was greater (P < ) from sows (15) sows, 10 wk post-LVI from an acute PRRS break, were in parity 2 ( g/d) than in parity 1 ( g/d), indicating that used. Four cross-fostering treatments were applied before far- milk production of sows increased from parity 1 to 2. Teat rowing: A) no movement of piglets, B) movement at 24 h, C) order and teat preference were not affected by litter sizes (10 movement at 5 d, and D) movement at 10 d. Litters were as- vs. 13) in parity 1. Piglets that suckled the anterior 5 pairs signed a treatment at birth and randomized throughout the room of mammary glands were more (P < ) than others ( and the litter received no new piglets. Corresponding to treat- vs. % in parity 1; vs. % in parity 2) showing ment, the 4 heaviest pigs were moved (excluding treatment A). their preference of mammary glands by location. In addition, Litters that received the fostered pigs farrowed on the same day, piglets that suckled the anterior 5 pairs of mammary glands same room, and same treatment. Eight tagged pigs/litter were had greater (P < ) ADG than those that suckled posterior tested for PRRS by PCR at birth and weaning. Litter birth and 3 pairs of mammary glands ( vs. g/d in parity 1; and wean weights were recorded. Performance data were analyzed vs. g/d in parity 2). The utilization rate of mammary using Proc GLM by SPSS with litter as the experimental unit glands in parity 2 with suckling history in parity 1 was more and PRRS transmission data was analyzed using Proc GLIM- (P < ) than those without suckling history in parity 1 (86 MIX in SAS with piglet as the experimental unit. Cross-foster- vs. %), indicating that piglets preferred mammary glands ing pigs at 10 d of age produced an elevation in the prevalence with previous suckling history. However, ADG of piglets in of PRRS, with an increase of % in positive pigs at weaning parity 2 was not affected by suckling history during parity 1. (P < ). Other treatments showed no significant difference in Collectively, this study indicates that piglets preferred mam- PRRS transmission (P > ; Table 1). There was no difference mary glands with previous suckling history even though milk between treatments in ADG and PWM (P > ). Cross-foster- production was not affected by suckling history. Piglets also ing at 10 d of age at 10 wk following LVI enhanced the spread preferred the anterior 5 pairs of mammary glands, which pro- of PRRS. Results confirm restricted cross-fostering programs duced more milk than others. should be implemented to reduce PRRS transmission even after Key Words: litter size, mammary glands, pigs, suckling 10 wk post-PRRS intervention. history, teat order Key Words: cross-fostering, prewean mortality, PRRS transmission Can animal welfare assessment at the farm be a Table Effect of cross-fostering programs on PRRS transmission good tool to control pork quality variation? L. M. Cross-foster treatment Rocha1, 2,*, A. Dalmau3, A. Velarde3, L. Saucier2, L. Values None 24 h 5d 10 d SE P-value Faucitano1, 2, 1Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, Sher- Pigs blood tested brooke, QC, Canada, 2Universit Laval, Quebec, QC, PRRS positive at birth, % Canada, 3IRTA, Animal Welfare Group, Monells, Spain. PRRS positive at wean, % b b b a < Increased PRRS positive*, % b b,c c a < The objective of this study was to assess the relationship be- tween criteria of the Welfare Quality protocol on farm (WQ) ac within a row differ indicate P < * The mean represented as Increased PRRS Positive was generated by (PRRS posi- and their relationship with pork quality variation. A total of tive at weaning PRRS positive at birth = Increased PRRS positive) animals were assessed according to the 12 criteria of the 24

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6 TA B L E O F C O N T E N T S SYMPOSIUM & ORAL ABSTRACTS SE C T I O N A BSTRA C T PA G E Animal Behavior, Housing, & Well-Being Symposium: What Does This Study Say About Well-Being? Caveats and Considerations. . . 1 Animal Behavior, Housing, & Well-Being I. . 2 Breeding and Genetics I. . . . 6 Breeding and Genetics Symposium: Analysis of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) Data. download xara 3d full - Free Activators.. . 9 Breeding autodesk 3ds max service pack Genetics II. . . 10 David Baker Amino Acids Symposium. . . 15 David Schingoethe Symposium: Heifer Nutrition and the Future. . 17 Equine. . . 19 Extension Dairy Symposium: Strategies To Increase Fiber Digestibility In Lactating Dairy Cows. . foxit pdf reader free download full version with crack.. . 21 Extension Swine. . . 23 Gary Allee Symposium: Feeding Sick Pigs. . . 25 Graduate Student Oral Competition: Master Oral I. . . 27 Graduate Student Oral Competition: Master Oral II. . . 31 Graduate Student Oral Competition: PhD Oral I. . floor plan software free download for windows 7.. 36 Graduate Student Oral Competition: PhD Oral II. daemon tools filehippo.. . 41 Growth, Development, Muscle Biology, and Meat Science Symposium: Insulin Revisited. . . 45 Growth, Development, Muscle Biology, and Meat Science. . freemake video downloader for mac - Crack Key For U.. . 47 Nonruminant Nutrition: Grow-Finish Management and Nutrition. . . 51 Nonruminant Nutrition: Nursery Management and Nutrition. . 57 Nonruminant Nutrition: Sow Management and Nutrition. keyshot serial code - Free Activators.. . 63 Nonruminant Nutrition: Feed Processing, Ingredients, and Additives. . . 65 Nonruminant Nutrition: Gut Health and Disease: Nutritional and Metabolic Impacts. . 71 Nonruminant Nutrition: Co-Products. . . 76 Nonruminant Nutrition: Minerals and Vitamins. . 81 Physiology Symposium: A Lifetime of Metabolites. . . 85 Physiology. winx hd video converter deluxe crack 2021.. . . . 88 Ruminant Nutrition: Co-Products. parted magic iso - Free Activators.. . 91 Ruminant Nutrition: General. . . . 95 Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Amino Acids. . 99 Undergraduate Student Competition Oral I. . Undergraduate Student Competition Oral II. . . i

7 POSTER ABSTRACTS SE C T I O N A BSTRA C T PA G E Animal Behavior, Housing, & Well-Being: Nonruminant Nutrition - Supplements and Alternative Feedstuffs. . . Animal Behavior, Housing, & Well-Being. . Breeding and Genetics. . . . Extension Beef/Small Ruminant. . . . Extension Swine. . . movavi video converter for android - Free Activators.. Growth, Development, Muscle Biology, and Meat Science. . . Nonruminant Nutrition: Amino Acids. . . Nonruminant Nutrition: Feed Additives and Ingredients. . . Nonruminant Nutrition: Nutritional Technologies and Feeding Strategies. . . Nonruminant Nutrition: Grow-Finish Nutrition and Management. . Nonruminant Nutrition: Nutrition and Management of Sows. . . Nonruminant Nutrition: Weaned Pig Nutrition and Management. . . Odor and Nutrition Management. . Sony Vegas Pro 16 Product Key - Crack Key For U.. . Physiology. . . advanced systemcare 13.4 license - Activators Patch.. . . Ruminant Nutrition. . . . Teaching. . . Author Index. . bitdefender total security 2020 crack.. . Keyword Index. deepl pro crack mac.. . . ii

8 SYMPOSIUM AND ORAL ABSTRACTS dressed. Animal welfare science must focus on assessing three overlapping ethical concerns related to the quality of life of ANIMAL BEHAVIOR, HOUSING, AND animals: 1) ability to live natural lives through the develop- WELL-BEING SYMPOSIUM: WHAT DOES ment and use of their natural behaviors, 2) freedom from pro- THIS STUDY SAY ABOUT Ccleaner professional plus crack - Crack Key For U longed and intense fear, pain, and other negative states, and 3) CAVEATS AND CONSIDERATIONS ability to function well. This review will, therefore, provide several examples, primarily of dairy cattle, on the need for The science of animal welfare. D. C. Lay Jr.*, U.S. appropriate scientific assessment of the impact of nutrition- Dept. of Agriculture, West Lafayette, IN. al management on animal welfare. For example, bucket-fed dairy calves may be provided adequate quantities of milk to People differ in their culture, education, economic status, and grow well and remain healthy. However, they may experience values; thus, they may view an animals welfare status as good decreased welfare as result of a deprived and frustrated natural or poor based on their individuality. However, regardless of desire to suck. Similarly, replacement dairy heifers provided these human differences in perception, the actual state of wel- a nutrient dense diet in a limited quantity may consume suf- fare for the animal does exist in a range from good to poor; ficient nutrients to grow at a specific rate and remain healthy it is our difficulty to scientifically quantify this state, which while experiencing hunger and frustration due to inability to underlies our global debate on animal welfare. The science express natural foraging activity. In many cases, nutritional of animal welfare is one of collaboration and dependence of practices may be perceived as acceptable if no immediate many sciences. Simply using one scientific discipline cannot impacts on biological functioning are observed. However, ensure an adequate assessment of the state of welfare for any long-term effects of alterations in feeding behavior or motiva- animal. An animal may be well fed, productive, free of dis- tion may, in time, impact normal functioning. For example, ease, and in a state of physiologic homeostasis yet suffer from increasing competition for feed access for dairy cows has of- poor welfare. It is the objective of the research, that is, to solve ten been associated with no immediate change in feed intake a welfare problem and its basis on sound scientific measures or production level. Unfortunately, such situations may also of welfare that defines it as Animal Welfare Science. Solid lead to less desirable patterns and timing of feed consumption, animal welfare research should measure those parameters that which, when sustained, may be linked to negative production have real meaning to an animals state of welfare given the and health outcomes. Thus, it is apparent that proper identifi- specific welfare problem at hand and should strive to include cation and integration of findings in all three areas of animal the affective state of the animals in question. Our challenge welfare science are needed to interpret the true welfare impact is in assessing a subjective state; we have done quite well in of nutritional management. assessing subjective states in humans and I believe we can be Key Words: behavior, nutrition, welfare successful in nonhuman animals as well. An animal welfare scientist needs to be able to interpret data from multiple disci- plines in an objective manner. The state of an animals welfare Considerations for applying electronic measure- relies on complex interactions from many biological systems. ments in animal welfare research. A. R. Green*, Similar to the theory of Gestalt, an animals welfare is greater University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana. than the sum of its parts; therefore, measuring random parts Technology has shown the potential to advance animal wel- will not provide the whole picture. fare research. As technology improves, more opportunities Key Words: livestock, welfare, well-being arise for electronic measurement of animal responses and other characteristics of housing and husbandry. Electronic Scientifically evaluating the impact of nutritional measures can provide valuable insight, but careful consider- management on animal welfare. T. DeVries*, Uni- ation must be given to ensure appropriate application of the versity of Guelph, Kemptville, ON, Canada. technology. Electronic affinity photo 2019 - Free Activators should be validated to be trusted. Two types of validation should be considered: 1) A search of the empirical literature yields numerous citations reliability of the technology to adequately capture the animal on the impact of nutritional management on the welfare of response being measured and 2) reliability of the electronic production animals. While much advancement in this area has signal representing the response. Measurements should reflect been made, a closer look at this literature often reveals that the animal perspective, and interpretations should be within the full impact on animal welfare has not been completely ad- the realm of animal welfare science. Technology should be 1

9 applied as a tool within a broader suite of welfare indicators. described by Hart and other researchers were motivational in For reliability of the animal response being measured, the nature and, as such, could be suspended in cases where sickness technology should not interfere with the animal or alter its behavior conflicts with activities that are essential for short-term responses. Before a new technology is implemented, it should survival, care of offspring, and in some cases reproduction. be verified that the response being measured does not change Sincethere has been continued research into increasing when the technology is introduced. This validation is typically our knowledge of the function and causation of sickness be- done with a comparison to some manually recorded measure- haviors. However, aspects of this information are only recently ment. For reliability of the electronic signal representing the being used on farms to identify sick animals in a group. The response, a calibration procedure should be completed before lack of species-specific indicators of these behaviors has lim- use of the equipment and at relevant intervals with contin- ited the use of sickness behavior for disease detection. While ued use of the equipment. Electronic devices may not per- sickness impacts similar changes in the motivation to perform form as expected within harsh animal environments, and their behavior across species, the species-specific indicators of how performance may change over time. Calibration of electronic these changes can be identified is still in its infancy. As animal instruments is typically done with a comparison to some stan- agriculture has expanded the more obvious behavior changes dard measurement. For welfare considerations, measurements of decreased feed and water intake become more difficult to de- should be taken at the level of the animal, to represent the ani- tect at the individual level. By understanding sickness behavior mals experience. Previous research has shown, for example, and identifying species-specific behaviors, sick animals can be that the temperature in the micro-environment of a laying hen identified sooner, appropriate technology can be used to mea- in commercial cages may be several degrees warmer than the sure changes, training of animal handlers can be improved, and temperature in the aisle where the fan control sensor is typi- housing environments can be altered to suit the needs of the cally located. Other measures of welfare may be similarly im- animals during convalescence. pacted by proximity to the animals. Measures should be inter- Key Words: health, management, sickness behavior preted within the bounds of welfare considerations and should be a part of a suite of welfare indicators. Electronic measures can offer insight to a wide range of animal management pa- Relating economics to animal welfare. G. T. Tonsor*, rameters. Within the context of animal welfare research, they Kansas State University, Manhattan. should be considered with respect to quality of life encom- This presentation will overview how economic research passing Zemana AntiMalware Premium 3.2.27 License key Crack health, normal behavior, and affective states. and concepts apply to animal welfare discussions, debates, Not all measures are indicative of welfare, and not all impor- and policies in the United States. The presentation will pro- tant measures may be taken electronically. vide views from an economic perspective as a contribution Key Words: reliability, sensor, technology towards the sessions range of disciplines and approaches. Planned issues to discuss include the role of production costs and exercised product demand in shaping animal welfare out- Wheres Waldo? Using sickness behavior to find the comes, the divergence of voting and purchasing behavior that sick animal in the crowd. A. L. Stanton*, University has occurred in the United States, and the distinction between of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison. scientific feasibility and social acceptance. The ability to find sick animals in a group can be challenging Key Words: animal welfare, economics, policy, for people in charge of caring for animals. Specifically, in food unintended consequences animal agriculture sick animals are frequently recognized as ill by vague signs of physical and behavioral changes that are de- scribed as animals being dull or off. While some people can use these signs effectively, these signs are difficult to quantify and ANIMAL BEHAVIOR, HOUSING, are difficult to train people unfamiliar with normal animals to AND WELL-BEING I identify. To better identify sick animals in groups sickness be- havior represents an avenue to facilitate early disease detection, animal handlers can be trained in detection sooner, and environ- Integrating technology and animal welfare: Space ments can be designed to Anicesoft Epub Converter License key recovery through supporting and resource use of individual noncage laying animals natural defenses against disease during convalescence. hens. C. L. Daigle*, D. Banerjee, R. A. Montgomery, Hart first described sickness behavior as a strategic evolved re- P. Thompson, J. C. Swanson, S. K. Biswas, J. M. sponse rather than a maladaptive response to infection in Siegford, Michigan State University, East Lansing. In this paper Hart described characteristics that were consistent Little is known about individual behavior and resource use across species as indicators of illnesslethargy, anorexia, de- of laying hens housed in noncage systems. As more hens are pression, and febrile. The next great leap forward in occurred in housed in large groups and their welfare assessed accordingly, when Aubert published his hypothesis that the behaviors understanding individual hen behavior and resource use is 2

10 paramount. Therefore, a wireless body-mounted sensor system body condition score =and days in milk = 83 22) was developed to track the location of individual laying hens in and 4 primiparous (body weight = kg, body condi- a noncage environment. The ethics of technology development tion score =and days in milk = 81 23; mean stimulated discussion with regards to animal welfare assess- SD) Holstein cows were used in a 4 4 Latin square design ment through a Philosophy of Technology lens. Investigations with a 2 2 factorial arrangement of feeding time and diet illustrated that wearing the sensor had a minimal negative long- type. A higher (HC, forage to concentrate ratio = ) or term effect on resource use or agonistic behavior, suggesting a lower (LC, forage to concentrate ratio = ) concen- that hens habituated to wearing the sensor. Furthermore, two trate total mixed ration (TMR) was delivered at either or parsimonious sampling strategies were identified for monitor- h. The study consisted of four d periods, each with 14 ing the behavior of individually identifiable hens to facilitate d of adaptation and 7 d of sampling. A metabolic acquisition further data collection. Using this newly identified sampling system was used to monitor continuous feed intake electroni- strategy, individual hen behavior and sensor data were collect- cally. Mixed Models was used to analyze the data included ed at 19, 28, 48, and 66 wk along with physical assessments fixed effects of feeding time, diet, parity, and their interactions as described in the Welfare Quality Assessment Protocol for and random effects of period and cow within parity plus re- Poultry. Mean differences in the amount of time hens per- siduals. Provision of the TMR at vs. h increased formed different behaviors and differences in the variability of feed intake within 3 h postfeeding, from 26 to 37% of total behavior performance were assessed. These results highlighted daily intake (P < ). In cumulative terms, the amounts con- that although group averages may not change, individual hens sumed between 0 and 6 h and 0 and 9 h postfeeding were simi- may vary in their physical condition and behavioral repertoire. lar between the 2 groups. Parity and diet did not interact with We synced spatially explicit locational information from the feeding time on circadian patterns of feed intake (P > ). hen-worn sensor system with video-based behavioral obser- Despite altering the postfeeding patterns of intake, provision vations. We digitally recreated the hen enclosure in ArcMap of TMR at vs. h did not affect total daily dry matter to develop a Geographic Information System (GIS) to intake (19 kg/d). Findings demonstrate that altering pdf annotator 7.0 0.701 crack - Free Activators time model hen behavior in noncage environments. By combining can alter periprandial patterns of feed intake in lactating cows. behavior and sensor data in GIS, we developed a spatiotem- Feeding time is established as a management orchestrator of poral representation of individual hen behavior. Data from 48 periprandial feeding behavior in once-daily fed dairy cows. and 66 wk was used to characterize individual hen behavior Key Words: dairy cow, eating time, intake pattern through utilization distributions, hot spot mapping, and con- specific ranging overlap calculations. Feeding and foraging were specifically targeted to identify spatiotemporal patterns Beta-agonist supplementation does not affect move- in appetitive behaviors that were or were not constrained by ment, signs of lameness, or animal welfare measures the location of the resource for its performance. Preening was of finished steers at the feedyard or packing plant. targeted as a grooming and social behavior that could indi- B. P. Holland*, M. Corrigan, J. L. Finck, J. M. Hod- cate a hens affective state. These results provide new insight gen, J. P. Hutcheson, W. T. Nichols, M. N. Streeter, D. into individual hen behavior and present a platform for a new A. Yates, Merck Animal Health, DeSoto, KS. type of agricultural research. Yet technology in agriculture is Market-ready steers (n = ; BW = kg) were evaluated a double-edged sword, especially as regards animal welfare, for movement and lameness at both the feedyard and at the and should be used when appropriate and relinquished when packing plant. Twelve pens of cattle (n = 66 steers/pen) were necessary. Integrating wildlife tracking techniques within ag- used in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were ricultural management research may provide insight into hen no -agonist (CON), zilpaterol HCl ( mg/kg; ZH) fed for welfare and can be used when developing best practices or de- 20 d and withdrawn from feed for 3 d before slaughter, or rac- signing new housing environments. topamine HCl ( mg/kg; RH) fed for 28 d before slaugh- Key Words: animal behavior, animal welfare, ter. Steers were fed a high-concentrate diet for an average of laying hen d before shipping km to a commercial packing plant. The evaluator was certified manycam pro - Free Activators conduct animal welfare audits (Professional Animal Auditor Certification Organization) and Timing of ration delivery regulates periprandial blinded to treatment. Evaluation was conducted in November eating behavior of dairy cows. A. Nikkhah*, Univer- using American Meat Institute guidelines. Beta-agonist sity of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran. supplementation did not affect any variables measured (P Chronophysiology of eating behavior and feed intake control ). At the feedyard, cattle were evaluated at a known point is a state-of-the-art science. The objective was to determine ef- of balking in the alley and as they exited a platform scale; at fects of feeding time and dietary forage to concentrate ratio on both locations, speed of movement (1 = walk, 2 = trot, and periprandial and h patterns of feed intake in lactating cows. 3 = run) was rated Acceptable ( > 75% walk or trot) for all Four tie stall-housed multiparous (body weight = 14 kg, treatments. Slips (%) and Falls (%) were minimal at 3

11 the feedyard. Signs of lameness were observed in % for overall (,and C for rectal, ear, and rump CON, % for ZH, and 0% for RH steers during weigh- temperatures, respectively). Increasing respiration rate is one ing. While average speed of movement was not different of the major mechanisms used by pigs to regulate temperature, when cattle were unloaded at the packing plant, RH cattle and it appears GHS pigs were able to maintain the body tem- were rated Not Acceptable with only % walking or trot- perature with less effort, having lower RR ( vs. ting (% running). In addition, Slips and Falls were breaths per min for GHS and GTN, respectively; andandand and % for CON, ZH, P < ). Higher room temperatures at the time of measure- and RH steers, respectively, during unloading at the pack- ment were associated with increased RR ( to ing plant. Similarly, slightly more cattle were observed with breaths per min; P < ) although this did not dif- signs of lameness at the packing plant (,and % fer by treatment. These data imply that metabolic differences for CON, ZH, and RH, respectively). Prod use was deemed exist between the two treatment groups whereby greater or acceptable ( < 25%) for all treatments. Vocalization at stun- lesser respiration rate is needed to maintain similar body tem- ning and inability to render an animal insensible with the first peratures. This could have implications on feed intake and effi- shot can be indicative of poor humane handling procedure ciency although housing both gilt groups together prevented us and agitated animals. Vocalization ( < 3%) and first stun ef- from collecting such data. Further quantification of treatment ficacy ( > 95%) were observed to be Acceptable for all treat- differences will allow producers to more accurately determine ments. Treatment did not affect movement although more RH the value of cooling for pregnant sows. pens were scored as running at the packing plant. In addition, Key Words: heat stress, in utero, pigs -agonist supplementation did not affect signs of lameness or other animal welfare measures at the time of shipment from the feedyard or after arrival at the packing plant. Associations between sow body lesions with body Key Words: animal welfare, -agonist, cattle condition and reproductive performance. M. Bryan*, M. Knauer, North Carolina State University, Raleigh. Heat stress in utero affects piglets later in life. B. L. The objective of this study was to determine the association Lynch1,*, J. N. Rhoades2, M. C. Lucy2, T. J. Safranski2, between vulva and shoulder lesions with body condition and 1 College of Wooster, Wooster, OH, 2University of reproductive performance for sows housed in gestation pens. Missouri, Columbia. Whiteline sows (n = 87) were measured before farrowing and Heat stress is currently an issue in the swine industry, having at breeding for the next reproductive cycle in a commercial been shown to decrease reproductive performance of boars farm in eastern North Carolina. Following weaning, sows were and sows as well as alter growth and composition of grow- housed in gestation stalls for 40 d and then allocated to pens of ing pigs. Climate change and leaner production pigs, which are 4 to 5 sows ( or m2 per sow, respectively). Vulva le- naturally more susceptible to heat stress, may accentuate this sions were scored 0 (no lesion) or 1 (lesion present). Shoulder issue. These factors make it important to study heat stress in lesions were scored 0 (no lesion), 1 (abrasion), or 2 (open). an attempt to quantify the production stages most vulnerable, Sow body condition measures included a Knauer sow caliper allowing the industry to make adjustments accordingly. The (CS), uTorrent 3.5.4 Beta 44488 Free Download - Crack Key For U (WT), body condition score (BCS), backfat (BF), objective of this study was to measure postnatal effects of in and longissimus muscle area (LMA). Backfat and LMA were utero heat stress on thermal properties of growing pigs. Preg- measured from a 10th rib cross-sectional image by a Real- nant sows were placed in the Brody Environmental Chambers Time ultrasound technician. Visual BCS was scored on a 1 to under either heat stressed (C: gestational heat stress 5 scale by an experienced technician. Sow production traits in- [GHS]) or thermoneutral (C: gestational thermoneutral cluded number born alive, litter birth weight, number weaned, [GTN]) conditions throughout gestation. At d of gestation litter weaning weight, piglet survival (number weaned/(total they were moved to the same farrowing facility and housed number born + net transfer)) and wean-to-conception interval. under thermoneutral conditions. Gilt progeny (n = ) from Data were analyzed in SAS using PROC GLM for continu- these sows were weaned and moved to mechanically ventilat- ous traits and PROC GLIMMIX for categorical traits. Vulva ed, fully slatted rooms at the University of Missouri Swine Re- lesions were recorded on % of sows at farrowing and 0% search Finisher where the current work was conducted. Rectal, of sows at breeding. No shoulder lesions, abrasions, and open ear, and rump temperatures and respiration rate (RR) were re- wounds were recorded on0, and 0%, respectively, of corded twice weekly from 3 to 6 mo of age. Room temperature sows at farrowing and 73, 21, and 6% of sows at breeding, re- was recorded each time pig temperatures were taken, and they spectively. The incidence of vulva lesions at farrowing was as- ranged over time and time of day from to C. Body sociated (P < ) with a lower CS, WT, BCS, BF, and LMA weights were recorded every 3 wk from 2 to 6 mo of age. Data at farrowing, reduced (P < ) piglet survival (%), and a were analyzed using mixed model procedures (Proc Mixed; lower (P < FaceGen Artist Pro Licenses key BCS at breeding. Sows with a lower CS at SAS Inst.). Temperatures were similar for GHS and GTN pigs farrowing had a greater (P < ) incidence of shoulder abra- 4

12 sions and open lesions at breeding. Backfat at farrowing had a show that the effect of the farm of origin on meat quality vari- curvilinear association (P < ) with open shoulder lesions ation can be explained by its impact on the behavior of pigs in at breeding with a BF of cm minimizing open lesions. response to the preslaughter handling procedures. Body condition score at farrowing had a curvilinear relation- Key Words: behavior, farm, meat quality ship (P < ) with shoulder abrasions at breeding with a BCS of minimizing abrasions. As WT and LMA at breeding decreased the occurrence of abrasions tended to increase (P < The impact of pellet quality on production effi- ) and open shoulder lesions increased (P < ). Results ciency and pig behavior in heat-stressed and ther- showed vulva and shoulder lesions were generally associated moneutral environments. J. M. Langdon II1,*, E. van with thinner sows but had little impact on reproductive per- Heugten1, A. C. Fahrenholz1, C. R. Stark1, C. E. Phil- formance. Although statistically significant, body condition lips2, M. Knauer1, 1North Carolina State University, measures explained little variation in lesion scores (r2 ). Raleigh, 2Murphy-Brown LLC, Rose Hill, NC. Key Words: lesion, reproduction, sow Two studies evaluated the impact of pellet quality on produc- tion efficiency and pig behavior in differing environments. Pigs (n = ) were housed in one of two adjacent environ- Effect of the farm system on the behavioral re- mental rooms, heat-stressed (HS) or thermoneutral (TN). Both sponse preslaughter and on meat quality variation the HS and TN environments were replicated 3 times. Aver- in pigs. L. M. Rocha1, 2,*, A. Dalmau3, A. Velarde3, L. age daily highs and lows for HS were 32 and 23C and for Saucier1, L. Faucitano1, 2, 1Universit Laval, Quebec, TN were 14 and 11C. Pigs were housed individually in pens QC, Canada, 2Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, Sher- ( m2) with woven wire flooring, cup waters, and open-faced brooke, QC, Canada, 3IRTA, Animal Welfare Group, feeders. Cornsoy diets were manufactured at the NCSU Feed Monells, Spain. Mill to contain 1 of 5 levels of pellet fines: 0, 15, 30, 45, or The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the 60%. Different levels of pellet fines were created by separating farm system on the behavior response at the plant and on meat the pellets from the fines and then adding the fines back to the quality variation in pigs. A total of 24 loads and animals pellets at the desired ratio. At an average weight of from 12 farms, 5 animal welfare certified farms (n = ; kg, barrows and gilts were randomly assigned to treatments WEL) and 7 conventional (n = ; CON), farms were as- for 21 d. Weekly pig weights, feed consumption, pig behav- sessed at unloading (UN) and in the lairage alley (LA) at the ior, respiration rate (breaths per min), and rectal temperature plant. The assessment was conducted using an audit protocol, (RT) were collected. Pig behavior was categorized as drinking, where criteria of the Welfare Quality and American Meat In- eating, standing, or resting. Statistical analysis was performed stitute protocols were merged. Pigs were loaded onto a two using analysis of variance. Pen was the experimental unit identical pot-belly trailers driven by two drivers (A and B) when evaluating pellet fines and room was the experimental who were rotated between types of farms each week. A sub- unit when comparing HS and TN environments. Level of pel- sample of pigs (60 pigs/2 farms) was randomly chosen let fines was not associated (P ) with ADFI or ADG in at the plant for meat quality evaluation. Meat quality was as- either HS or TN. A 10% increase in pellet fines numerically sessed in the Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle at 24 h post- reduced (P ) G:F in HS and TN by and mortem by measuring ultimate pH (pHu), color, and drip loss.respectively. A 10% increase in pellet fines was Meat quality and behavior data were analyzed by the GLIM- associated with lower (P < ) RT for both HS and TN on d MIX and MIXED procedure of SAS. Spearman correlations 0 (C and Crespectively) and were performed to determine the relationship between the d 14 (C and Crespectively). swine behavior and meat quality variation using SAS. When Level of pellet fines did not impact (P < ) behavior. How- transported by driver B, pigs from WEL farms were harder ever, a 10% increase in pellet fines numerically increased (P to unload than pigs from CON farms as shown by the greater ) the percentage of time observed eating in HS and TN by percentage of turn-back ( vs. %; P = ) and slips and %respectively. Heat stress had similar ( vs. %; P < ). The WEL pigs also presented a (P = ) ADFI ( vs. kg), tended (P = ) to have greater ( vs. %; P = ) number of falls in the LA lower ADG ( vs. kg), and had similar (P = ) G:F compared to CON. Overall, turn-back attempts and reluctance ( vs. ) in comparison to TN. Respiration rate and RT to move, both indicators of a fear response, appear to contrib- were greater (P < ) for HS in comparison to TN on d 7 (95 ute to slips at UN (r =P < and r =P

13 Identifying characteristics of slow-growing pigs BREEDING AND GENETICS I from birth to 9 wk of age and growth performance responses to feeder space postweaning. Y. He1,*, J. Deen1, G. C. Shurson2, Y. Li3, 1University of Min- Improving accuracies of genomic predictions by nesota, St. Paul, 2University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, enriching 50K genotypes with markers from K 3 University of Minnesota, West Central Research and genotypes at QTL regions. M. Saatchi*, D. J. Garrick. Outreach Center, Morris. Iowa State University, Ames. Slow-growing (SG) pigs can be characterized as those that More accurate genomic predictions were expected using high- have less BW per day of age than their contemporaries and density marker panels such as Illumina BovineHD BeadChip negatively affect profitability and animal well-being in pork (K) rather 360 total security premium license key free 2019 - Activators Patch Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChips (50K) production systems. Limited feeder space allowance may fur- due to greater linkage disequilibrium between markers and ther suppress growth of SG pigs after weaning. The objectives quantitative trait loci (QTL). Results from field data showed of this study were to identify characteristics and investigate little advantage for K panels in dairy cattle populations. We the effect of feeder space allowance on growth performance compared accuracies of genomic predictions for birth, wean- of SG pigs during the nursery period. Pigs (n = ) were ing, and yearling weights in Hereford cattle using 50K, im- weighed individually at birth and weaning at 4 wks of age puted K, or enriched 50K genotypes (50K genotypes plus and categorized as slow (the lightest 30%), fast (the heaviest imputed K genotypes at locations of the largest QTL). A 30%), and normal (the middle 40%) growth based pdf annotator 7.0 0.701 crack - Free Activators BW/ total of animals were genotyped with the 50K panel. For day of age at nursery exit (9 wks of age). Pigs were randomly these animals, turbo application - Free Activators for aboutmarkers were im- allotted to pens (8 pigs/pen; m2/pig) with 1 of 2 feeder- puted using BEAGLE software from Irish and U.S. space treatments: 1) 5 feeder spaces/pen (5SP) or 2) 2 feeder Hereford cattle genotyped with K. Only those markers im- spaces/pen (2SP) by covering 3 of the 5 spaces. Pigs were puted K genotypes located at Mb on BTA5, 38 Mb on weighed individually at 1, 3, and 5 wks after weaning. Focal BTA6, 93 Mb on BTA7, and 4 Mb on BTA20 and their two 1 pigs (n = 96) consisting of 48 slow and 48 fast growing pigs Mb flanking windows (USDA_AIPL assembly) were added to were used to determine rate of feed consumption at 55 d of 50K genotypes to make enriched 50K genotypes ( addi- age. Data were analyzed using the Mixed Procedure of SAS tional markers). Six-fold cross-validation was performed using with repeated measures. Slow-growing pigs provided 5SP had five groups for training and the sixth group for validation using greater ADG during wk 1 to 3 ( vs. kg/d, either 50K, imputed K, or enriched 50K genotypes. Der- respectively; P < ), wk 3 to 5 ( vs. egressed estimated breeding values were used as observations kg/d, respectively; P = ), avg secure vpn setup the overall 5-wk nursery in a weighted analysis that estimated marker effects to derive period ( vs. kg/d, respectively; P < ) molecular breeding values (MBV). Bivariate animal models than those provided 2SP. Compared with fast-growing pigs, were used for each trait to estimate the genetic correlation be- SG pigs had lighter birth weight ( vs. kg, re- tween trait and MBV as a measurement of the accuracy of ge- spectively; P < ) and lower ADG ( vs. nomic prediction. The accuracies of MBV for birth, weaning, kg/d, respectively; P < ) during the nursery period and and yearling weights were, and using 50K slower growth rate ( vs. kg/d; P < ) genotypes, and using K genotypes, and by nursery exit. Slow-growing pigs ate slower ( vs., and using enriched genotypes, respective- g/min; P < ) than fast-growing pigs. These results ly. These correlations are equivalent to proportionate increases suggest that SG pigs have low birth weight and lower feed in the additive genetic variance explained for these traits of 0, consumption rates and, consequently, have reduced growth 9, and 5% using enriched 50K genotypes, respectively. These rates during the nursery period. Providing more feeder space results show that the accuracies of genomic predictions can improved growth rate of SG pigs during the nursery period. be increased for some traits by using just those markers from Key Words: feed consumption rate, feeder space, slow- higher density genotypes at QTL regions. growing pigs Key Words: accuracy, genomic breeding values, genomic selection Haplotype diversity analysis in ten U.S. cattle breeds. H. Su*, J. E. Koltes, M. Saatchi, J. Lee, R. L. Fernando, D. J. Garrick, Iowa State University, Ames. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) between SNP markers is com- monly reported in scientific publications because it may reflect 6

14 the extent of linkage phase between QTL and SNP marker, traits when the training sets comprised single (or multiple) which is fundamental information for association studies and breeds, respectively. These results demonstrate the feasibility genomic selection. Some studies have demonstrated that SNP of developing DGV for U.S. Maine-Anjou beef cattle. Also, in strong LD are organized into discrete blocks or haplotypes, the accuracies of DGV were slightly lower when multiple which may be separated by recombination hot spots. Haplo- other unrelated breeds were added to the training population types are of direct scientific interest as they may be in perfect for Main-Anjou animals. To strengthen the advantages through LD with QTL alleles, and they cause the observed LD between a multiple breed training population, further studies to detect SNP markers. In this study, we reconstructed haplotypes with- common QTL segregating in Maine-Anjou and to find better in each 1-Mb SNP window for 10 U.S. cattle breeds genotyped markers with greater LD across multiple breeds is required. with the Illumina BovineSNP50K. Then, we investigated the Key Words: genomic breeding values, single or diversity of common haplotypes, which we defined as those multiple breed, U.S. Maine-Anjou beef cattle that were observed at a frequency of at least 1 in in each breed. The average number of common haplotypes across the entire genome was 18 and ranged from 15 to approximately 25 Improving the accuracy of genomic prediction of in individual breeds. Some specific windows showed consis- milk fat yield in the New Zealand Holstein Friesian tent increased or decreased haplotype diversity in all breeds. population. M. K. Hayr1,*, M. Saatchi1, D. Johnson2, Low haplotype diversity was observed in some windows of D. Swiftshader 6.0 Crack. Garrick1, 1Iowa State University, Ames, 2LIC, most chromosomes for all the breeds. This information pro- Hamilton, New Zealand. vides direction for future studies to characterize haplotype This study investigated the effect of including a QTL for milk diversity in relation to annotated gene-rich regions, published traits, DGAT1, in calculating direct genomic values (DGVs). QTL, selection signals, and loss-of-function mutations. Illumina SNP50 (50K) genotypes and deregressed estimated Key Words: beef cattle, haplotype diversity, linkage breeding values (DEBVs) for fat yield were provided by LIC disequilibrium for Holstein Friesian cows and bulls. DGAT1 genotypes were provided for cows and bulls, with DGAT1 genotype imputed for the remaining cattle using Comparison of genomic breeding values based on BEAGLE. Four models were run in GenSel using Bayes B single or multiple breed reference populations in method and fivefold cross-validation with % of SNPs as- U.S. Maine-Anjou beef cattle. J. Lee*, M. Saatchi, D. sumed to have an effect on the trait: 1) a model relying on J. Garrick, Iowa State University, Ames. linked 50K markers to pick up the effect of DGAT1, 2) a The efficiency and advantage of predictors that use genomic model with 50K markers and DGAT1 dosage fit as a random information have been identified through previous papers that covariate, 3) a model with 50K markers and DGAT1 geno- reported accuracy when the training sets comprised individu- type fit as a fixed class, and 4) a model with 50K markers and als from their own purebreds. Several U.S. beef cattle breed DGAT1 dosage fit as a fixed covariate. These models were run associations have been making an effort to take advantage of separately for males and females and each sex was run twice, genomic predictors in their cattle evaluations. The objective once with only animals with DGAT1 directly genotyped and of this study was to estimate accuracies of genomic breed- then with all animals. Accuracy was defined as the correlation ing values using Illumina BovineSNP50 genotypes for the three growth traits (birth, yearling, and carcass weights) in Table Regression coefficients and correlations between DEBV U.S. Maine-Anjou beef cattle using single or multiple breed and DGV training populations. In single breed analyses, only Maine- Direct Direct and imputed DGAT1 DGAT1 Anjou animals were used in training. Maine-Anjou animals Sex Model b r b r were clustered into five groups using K-means clustering for Males 50K cross-validation for the purpose of reducing the relationships 50K + DGAT1 between training and test populations. In multiple breed analy- (Random Covariate) ses, direct genomic values (DGV) of the growth traits for about 50K + DGAT1 (Fixed Maine-Anjou animals were estimated using capture one activation key Class) and genotype data that, in addition to Maine-Anjou, includ- 50K + DGAT1 (Fixed Covariate) ed about animals from nine other breeds (AAN, RAN, Females 50K BRG, SIM, GVH, RDP, BSH, CHA, and HER) in the training 50K + DGAT1 (Random population. Accuracies of genomic breeding values were cal- Covariate) culated as simple correlations between deregressed estimated 50K + DGAT1 (Fixed Class) breeding values (DEBV) used as observation data and DGV. 50K + DGAT1 (Fixed The accuracies of direct genomic values were (), Covariate) (), and () for birth, yearling, and carcass weight 7

15 between DEBV and DGV while bias was represented in terms ent 1 mo after booster vaccination minus antibodies present at of the regression coefficient of DEBV on DGV. Performance time of initial vaccination (overall response). The estimated was very similar in models 1 and 2 while results for models heritability of initial response to the vaccine was 3 and 4 were also very similar. Models 3 and 4 performed at time of initial vaccination (P = ). However, we did better than models 1 and 2. When all animals were included, not find evidence that the booster or overall response to the the models with 50K markers plus DGAT1 as a fixed class or vaccine was heritable (h2 = for booster and h2 = a fixed covariate performed equivalently. When only animals for overall response; P < ). We conclude that directly genotyped for DGAT1 were analyzed the model with the initial humoral response to this E. coli OH7 vaccine 50K markers plus DGAT1 as a fixed covariate had the low- is moderately heritable. If vaccine response is heritable, we est bias while the model with 50K markers plus DGAT1 as a may be able to identify cattle that are genetically predisposed fixed class had the highest macrium reflect 7.2 license key - Free Activators. These results were con- towards mounting a more protective immune response. sistent across both sexes. These results suggest that including Key Words: Escherichia coli OH7, heritability, DGAT1 genotype as a fixed class or a fixed covariate when vaccine response calculating DGVs both increases accuracy and reduces bias. Key Words: dairy, DGAT1, genomic prediction Genotype environment interaction in Red Angus cattle in the United States. W. R. Lamberson1, D. Heritability estimation for Escherichia coli Fennewald2,*, R. L. Weaber3, M. Kaps4, 1University of OH7 vaccine response in beef cattle. K. Mar- Missouri, Columbia, 2Univeristy of Missouri, Colum- ley1,*, L. A. Kuehn2, J. Keele2, B. Wileman3, 4, M. G. bia, 3Kansas State University, Manhattan, 4University Gonda1, 1South Dakota State University, Brookings, of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia. 2 USDA-ARS, Clay Center, NE, 3Epitopix LLC, Willmar, Genotype environment interaction (GE) can be defined as MN, 4Kansas State University, Manhattan. a reranking of genetic merit estimates of parents when prog- Humoral vaccine response has been shown to be heritable for eny are produced in different environments. Increasing use of several bovine vaccines. However, heritability for response to artificial insemination in the beef industry broadens the use of an E. coli O vaccine in cattle has not been estimated. Our bulls across production environments. One approach to mea- objective was to estimate the heritability of humoral response suring GE is to consider different production environments to a commercially available E. coli O vaccine. Crossbred as separate traits and estimate genetic correlations between cattle from various proportions of 16 different breeds (Angus, traits defined in this way. Previous researchers have suggested Hereford, Red Angus, Shorthorn, Brahman, Brangus, Beef- that a genetic correlation between environments of greater master, Santa Gertrudis, Braunvieh, Charolais, Chiangus, than indicates little evidence of GE. The objective of Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, Limousin, Salers, and Simmental) this study was to estimate the magnitude of GE by estimat- in the USMARC Germplasm Evaluation Program (n = ) ing genetic correlations across production environments. Data were vaccinated with a commercially available E. coli O for birth weight, weaning weight (n = 74,), postweaning vaccine (Epitopix, LLC, Willmar, MN) and then received a gain (n = 39,), and stayability (n = 28,) were provided booster shot 1 mo after the initial vaccination. Three blood by the Red Angus Association of America. Records were as- samples were collected: 1) time of initial vaccination (d 0), signed to nine regions: Corn Belt, desert, Gulf Coast, lower 2) time of booster vaccination (d 30), and 3) approximately 1 plains, mountains, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, south, and mo following booster vaccination (d 60). Antibodies present in upper plains. To be included in the analysis, bulls had to pro- plasma that were specific for the siderophore receptor and po- duce at least 50 calves in at least two regions. Each region rin (SRP) proteins used in the vaccine were measured with an was considered a separate trait and genetic correlations were enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in parallel with estimated by using ASReml. For the three growth traits there positive and negative controls. Sample-to-positive (S/P) ratios was no evidence of GE. Genetic correlations between pairs were calculated from ELISA optical densities for each sample. of regions were all or greater. However, for stayability, Of the calves included in the study, had antibodies genetic correlations were lower ranging from (between circulating in their blood at time of initial vaccination (S/P > the lower plains and Pacific) to (between the desert and ). These animals were not analyzed further because upper plains). Averaged across regions, the upper plains was the presence of circulating antibodies at initial vaccination mostly highly genetically correlated with other regions, with could have interfered with vaccine response. Vaccine response an average genetic correlation ofthe average genetic cor- was defined as the difference between 1) antibodies present at relation of the desert, Gulf Coast, and south with CDBurnerXP For Windows regions time of booster shot minus antibodies present at time of ini- was intermediate, ranging from toand the lowest tial vaccination (initial response), 2) antibodies present 1 mo average genetic correlations ranged from to for the after booster vaccination minus antibodies present at time of Corn Belt, lower plains, mountains, Northeast, and Pacific. In booster vaccination (booster response), and 3) antibodies pres- general, genetic correlations were highest between similar re- 8

16 gions, mountains and upper plains, and hot regions including the generally deeper coverage and the homogeneous, haploid the desert, gulf, and southeast. In conclusion, there is little nature of haplotypes as compared to individuals. An itera- evidence for GE for growth traits, but stronger evidence for tive algorithm to take advantage of these concepts has been GE exists for stayability suggesting that care should be taken developed and is being tested on a 13 kb region surrounding when selecting sires to produce replacement heifers. the myostatin gene on beef bulls (including 80 sireson Key Words: cattle, genetic correlation, genotype pairs) of seven breeds and their crosses that have genomic environment interaction, stayability sequence at an average depth of approximately 2X. This al- gorithm is based on the alternative paradigm of determining the underlying haplotypes directly from the sequence data and pedigree and then deriving genotypes (if needed) and BREEDING AND GENETICS SYMPOSIUM: performing other analyses subsequently. USDA is an equal ANALYSIS OF NEXT GENERATION opportunity provider and employer. SEQUENCING Geekbench Pro 5.4.1 Crack + Full License Key Download [2021] DATA Key Words: low-coverage NGS data Utilization of sequence on relatives to improve Applications of high-throughput sequencing for analysis of individuals low-coverage NGS data. R. fertility, demography, and genome improvement. J. M. Thallman1,*, T. S. Kalbfleisch2, 1USDA, Agricultural E. Decker*, R. D. Schnabel, J. F. Taylor, University of Research Service, U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, Missouri, Columbia. Clay Center, NE, 2Intrepid Bioinformatics, Louisville, KY. New sequencing technologies have allowed researchers to Low-coverage sequence data is expected to have low call tackle new problems and revisit old ones. At the University rates under the prevailing paradigm under which genotypes of Missouri we are using Illumina sequencing to identify loss- are first called from sequence data of each individual in- of-function mutations in influential artificial insemination dependently and subsequent analyses (including determi- sires. We are sequencing each bull to high coverage (approxi- nation of haplotypes) are dependent on those called geno- mately 30X) to accurately call homozygous and heterozygous types. However, provided + individuals are sequenced, genotypes within individual animals. Using this information the number of haplotypes present in the region surrounding a we can identify variants that are predicted to have deleteri- gene should typically be considerably smaller than the num- ous effects on gene products or are never observed as homo- ber of individuals, so the effective sequence coverage per zygotes. Many of these will be embryonic lethals, which are haplotype should be considerably higher than the coverage reducing fertility rates in beef cattle. We are also using whole- per individual, especially for the most heavily represented genome sequences to infer the effective population sizes of haplotypes. Given a set of haplotypes spanning the popula- cattle over time. This will allow us to identify the changes tion for a defined genomic region, the likelihood of each se- that have altered the genomes within and among breeds of quencing read of an individual (that has been mapped to that cattle. Perhaps most importantly, we are using new sequenc- region) having originated from each of the haplotypes can be ing technologies to improve the assembly for the cattle refer- computed. Pooling those likelihoods over the reads of each ence genome. In addition to existing Sanger data, the bovine individual provides the likelihood of each individual having genomics community is generating Illumina and PacBio data each haplotype, and conditioning on the pedigree through a that will be used to close gaps and more accurately scaffold peeling algorithm provides the probability distribution for the reference genome sequence. Each sequencing technology each individuals paternal and maternal haplotypes. Provided has its own strengths and weaknesses. By combining different an individual has + sequencing reads and there is suffi- sequencing technologies we harness a technologys strength cient pedigree structure, these distributions should often be and use complimentary technologies to overcome its weak- relatively unambiguous. The probabilities of assigning hap- nesses. We are also working to annotate regulatory elements lotypes to each individual are combined with the likelihoods throughout the bovine genome, as nearly three quarters of of the reads to compute posterior probabilities that assign causal mutations for quantitative traits seem to lie within non- reads to haplotypes. For individuals whose haplotypes are coding regulatory elements. These improvements will allow determined unambiguously, there are three possible cases: researchers to more easily identify important variants. the read is assigned unambiguously to the haplotype if the Key Words: assembly, genome, sequencing individual is homozygous, the read will usually be assigned unambiguously if the individual has two haplotypes with dif- ferent sequences corresponding to the read, and the read will be assigned with equal probability to two haplotypes with identical sequences corresponding to the read. The reads as- signed (probabilistically) to each haplotype are pooled over individuals and assembled to improve its sequence, aided by 9

17 well. These results indicate that a more detailed analysis and/ HMM-ASE: A hidden Markov algorithm for ascer- or the use of a combination of callers are necessary if the live- taining cSNP genotypes from RNA sequence data in stock industry is to fully utilize genome resequencing infor- presence of allelic imbalance. H. Wang*, Michigan mation to improve livestock breeding. The authors gratefully State University, East Lansing. acknowledge financial support from the Swiss Cattle Breeders Association (ASR) and the Swiss Commission for Technology RNA-seq is a revolutionizing technology for transcriptome and Innovation (CTI), and USDA-NIFA project analysis, which is being increasingly used for nucleotide- Key Words: next generation sequencing centric inference. Allelic specific expression provides promis- ing information on relating gene expression with phenotypic variation. The commonly used ASE testing requires a prior ascertainment of the cSNP genotypes for all individuals. In BREEDING AND GENETICS II realizing these needs, we propose a hidden Markov method (HMM-ASE) to call SNPs from RNA sequence data. The proposed method can accommodate ASE in the RNA data. Validation of the effects of a SNP on SSC4 Simulation and real data applications results demonstrate that associated with viral load and weight gain in piglets our proposed HMM-ASE has an improved accuracy and sen- experimentally infected with PRRS virus. A. Hess1,*, sitivity in SNP calling. Moreover, HMM-ASE is advanced in N. Boddicker2, R. R. R. Rowland3, J. K. Lunney4, J. C. calling cSNP from low-coverage RNA-seq data comparing to M. Dekkers1, 1Iowa State University, Ames, 2Genesus, some existing methods. Oakville, MB, Canada, 3Kansas State University, Key Words: hidden Markov model, RNA-seq, SNPs Manhattan, 4USDA, ARS, BARC, APDL, Beltsville, MD. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is Computational resources to facilitate variant dis- the most costly disease to the U.S. pork industry, and vac- covery and analysis. J. M. Reecy1,*, C. Baes2, 3, E. cines, biosecurity measures, and proposed methods for eradi- Fritz-Waters1, J. E. Koltes1, M. Dolezal4, B. Bapst3, C. cation have had limited success. The aim of the PRRS Host Flury2, H. Signer-Hasler2, C. Stricker5, R. L. Fernando1, Genetics Consortium (PHGC) is to identify genomic markers D. J. Garrick1, F. Schmitz-Hsu6, B. Gredler2, M. Vaugh7, and pathways associated with host response to PRRS virus 1 Iowa State University, Ames, 2Bern University of Ap- (PRRSV), which could potentially be used for genetic selec- plied Sciences, Zollikofen, Switzerland, 3Qualitas AG, tion of pigs for increased resistance or reduced susceptibility Zug, Switzerland, 4Universit degli Studi di Milano, to the virus. Boddicker Filmora 8.3.5 Serial Key al. () identified a SNP on SSC4 Milano, Italy, 5agn Genetics GmbH, Davos, Switzerland, (WUR) for which the favorable allele (B) was as- 6 Swissgenetics, Zollikofen, Switzerland, 7Texas Advance sociated with reduced viral load (VL) and increased weight Computing Center, University of Texas, Austin. gain (WG) under infection with the NVSL PRRSV isolate. The objective of this study was to test the effects of Next generation sequencing has facilitated the sequencing of this SNP when infecting pigs with a genetically different iso- large numbers of individuals for variant detection. A challenge late of PRRSV (KS), which has 89% amino acid facing the livestock industry is the establishment of efficient sequence identity with NVSL in GP5. Following workflows to process raw sequence data to accurate variant the same experimental design, approximately commer- data such that implementation of whole genome sequence cial crossbred piglets per trial for a total of 5 trials were ex- information in livestock breeding programs can be accom- perimentally infected with PRRSV at 28 to 35 d of age. Blood plished. Within the iPlant infrastructure, we have implement- samples and weights were collected periodically for up to 42 ed currently available variant calling techniques and have ap- d postinfection (dpi). Viremia was measured using a qPCR plied them to a dairy cattle data set. The Burrows-Wheeler assay for PRRSV RNA, and VL was defined as the area under aligner (BWA) was used to align paired end Illumina reads the curve of Log viremia from 0 to 21 dpi. WG was defined as from 66 bulls to the Bos taurus UMD reference assembly. weight gain from 0 to 42 dpi. Analyses were performed using A pipeline, integrating data preparation, insertion and deletion PROC MIXED in SAS (v), with trial nested with parity realignment, base quality score recalibration, and variant call- and the number of B alleles for the SSC4 SNP as fixed effects, ing, was created to manage variant calling comparisons. Vari- weight and age at infection as covariates, and litter and pen ant calling was done using three different calling methods: nested within trial as random effects. Consistent with previ- UnifiedGenotyper of the Genome Analysis Tool Kit, SAM- ous findings, individuals that were heterozygous for the SSC4 Tools Mpileup, and Platypus. A total of nine different options SNP had greater WG ( kg; P =nAA =were compared with these methods. Significant variation in nAB = ) and lower VL ( units; P

18 reported value for the NVSL isolate for WG ( Alberta Livestock and Meat Agency, Genesus Inc., and State vs. kg) but comparable for VL ( of Iowa and Hatch funds is appreciated. vs. units). These results suggest this SSC4 marker Key Words: lactation, GWAS, sow may be useful for genetic selection of pigs for increased resis- tance or reduced susceptibility to PRRSV isolates that differ genetically and possibly in pathogenicity. This work was sup- Meta-analysis genomewide association of pork ported by Genome Canada, USDA ARS, and breeding compa- quality traits: Ultimate pH and shear force. Y. L. nies of the PHGC and PigGen Canada. Bernal Rubio1, 2,*, J. L. Gualdrn Duarte2, R. O. Bates1, Key Words: genetic selection, PRRS, SSC4 C. W. Ernst1, D. Nonneman3, G. A. Rohrer4, A. King3, S. D. Shackelford3, T. L. Wheeler3, R. J. C. Cantet2, J. P. Steibel1, 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, Identification of genomic regions associated with 2 Department of Animal Science, University of Buenos sow lactation performance in Yorkshire pigs. D. M. Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 3USDA/ARS, Clay Thekkoot1,*, R. A. Kemp2, M. F. Rothschild1, G. Plas- Center, NE, 4USDA, ARS, U.S. Meat Animal Research tow3, J. C. M. Dekkers1, 1Iowa State University, Ames, Center, Clay Center, NE. 2 Genesus Inc, Oakville, MB, Canada, 3University of It is common practice to perform genomewide association Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. analysis (GWA) using a genomic evaluation model of a single Lactation is an energy demanding process for sows. The ob- population. However, the joint analysis of several populations jective of this study was to identify genomic regions in sows is more difficult. An alternative to joint analysis could be the related to lactation and litter growth through a genomewide meta-analysis (MA) of several GWA from independent ge- association study (GWAS). Data from litters from nomic evaluations, which allows combining results from in- Yorkshire sows that were genotyped using the Illumina por- dividual studies, so as to account for population substructure. cine 60K Bead chip were used. The sows were weighed and The objectives of this research were 1) to produce GWA from scanned for back fat and loin depth before farrowing and at genomic evaluations for pork quality traits in three popula- weaning and piglets were weighed at birth, weaning, and tions and 2) to implement a MA searching for significant asso- death. The GWAS focused on total weaning weight (TWW), ciations across pig populations. Data from two U.S. Meat Ani- litter weight gain (LWG), sow weight loss (WL), back fat loss mal Research Center populations (Commercial and MARC) (BFL), and loin loss (LL). Estimates of heritability were mod- and one Michigan State University population (MSU) were erate () for WL but low for all other traits (). The used. Population-specific GWA were performed by fitting ge- GWAS was implemented separately for parity 1 (N = ) and nomic evaluation models to each population for ultimate pH parity 2 (N = ) trait phenotypes using the BayesB method (n = Commercial, n = MARC, and n = MSU) in the GENSEL software. A 1 Mb region on chromosome 2, and shear force (SF; n = Commercial, n = MARC, which exhibited strong linkage disequilibrium, explained 59% and n = MSU). A MA was implemented by combining z- of the genetic variance for TWW and 48% for LWG for parity scores derived for each SNP in every population using two dif- 2 phenotypes but less than % of genetic variation for parity ferent weighting schemes: 1) sample size (N) and 1) estimated 1 records. The same region explained the highest proportion variance of SNP effects. One peak at SSC15 was identified of variance for BFL for parity 2 records (%) but less than for pH in MSU and in the Commercial populations ( Mb, % of genetic variance for LL and WL in both parities. The p-value < e for MSU and MB, p-value < e favorable allele of the most significant SNP in this region had for Commercial). In the N-weighted MA, a peak was detected a frequency of and the genotypes were in Hardy Weinberg on SSC15 at position Mb (p-value < e). A virtual- equilibrium. To further evaluate the effects of this SNP, it was ly identical result was obtained using variance-weighted MA: included as a fixed class effect in an animal model analysis of a peak on SSC15 at Mb, p-value < e For SF, GWA parity 1, 2, and 3 records as an interaction with parity. Geno- for MSU showed one peak on SSC15 ( Mb, p-value < type effects for parities 2 and 3 were significant for LWG, e-8) and another peak on SSC2 ( Mb, p-value < e- TWW, LL (P < ), and BFL (P = and ) but were 8). GWA detected peaks for SF on SSC2 at positions Mb not significant for parity 1 (P > ). For TWW, estimates of for Commercial (p-value < e-7) and at Mb for MARC allele substitution effects were, and kg for parities population (p-value < e-7). The variance-weighted MA 1, 2, and 3, respectively, and, and kg for LWG. detected one peak on SSC2 ( Mb, p-value < e) and Positional candidate genes for this region are associated with another one on SSC15 ( Mb, p-value < e-7). In con- monosaccharide metabolic processes. It can be concluded that trast, N-weight MA yielded two peaks on SSC2, at Mb this region on SCC2 had a significant impact on litter growth and at Mb (p-value < e and e-6, respectively). traits for Yorkshire sows in parity 2 and later. These results Based on our results, selecting a weighting scheme for MA- can aid in marker assisted selection but need further validation GWA is very important because it may influence the results. in other samples and breeds. Funding from Genome Alberta, Regardless of the approach used, MA-GWA revealed peaks 11

19 that were present in at least two populations. Thus, MA-GWA the favorable allele A from G31E increased from in gilts methodology Fortnite Battle Royale Free Download an attractive alternative to synthesize results unable to generate a parity to in sows that generated 3 from multiple GWA derived from genomic evaluations and it parities. These Presonus Studio One v5.3 Free Download with Crack suggest that selection based on can be used to elucidate the genetic architecture of economi- SNPs such as G31E and GD have the potential to reduce cally relevant traits, when several populations are available. age at puberty and improve reproductive longevity, leading to Key Words: genomewide association, meta-analysis, an increase in sow net values in commercial herds. USDA is pork quality an equal opportunity provider and employer. Key Words: AVPR1A, longevity, swine AVPR1A alleles are pleiotropic sources of variation in age at puberty and reproductive longevity in Variation in host genetics influences PCVAD sows. M. D. Trenhaile1,*, K. L. Lucot1, J. K. Tart1, J. W. susceptibility. T. B. Engle1,*, E. E. Jobman1, T. W. Bundy1, J. F. Thorson2, E. M. Keuter1, J. R. Wood1, M. F. Moural1, A. M. McKnite1, S. Y. Barnes1, E. H. Davis1, Rothschild3, G. A. Rohrer2, P. S. Miller1, M. L. Spangler1, J. W. Bundy2, T. P. Johnson1, J. K. Qiu1, J. A. Galeota1, C. A. Lents2, R. K. Johnson4, S. D. Kachman4, D. C. S. P. Harris1, M. F. Rothschild3, R. K. Johnson1, G. S. Ciobanu1, 1University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 2USDA, ARS, Plastow4, S. D. Kachman1, D. C. Ciobanu2, 1University U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, Clay Center, NE, of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, 2University of Nebraska, 3 Iowa State University, Ames, 4University of Nebraska- Lincoln, 3Iowa State University, Ames, 4University of Lincoln, Lincoln. Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Age at puberty is a moderately heritable trait and an early Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2), the causative agent of Por- indicator of sow reproductive longevity. Gilts that express cine Circovirus Associated Diseases (PCVAD), affects growth first estrus early are characterized by improved reproductive and can lead to mortality. Host genetics influences susceptibil- longevity and lifetime productivity. These traits are depen- ity and plays a role in PCVAD progression. The objective of dent on advanced systemcare pro 11.4 crack - Crack Key For U function of the hypothalamicpituitarygonadal this research was to identify major genetic variants and genes axis, and their variation is expected to be affected by the same that influence immune response and PCVAD susceptibility. genes. Genomewide association analyses uncovered a region Various crossbred lines were experimentally infected with a on SSC5 ( Mb) that partially explained the phenotypic PCV2b strain similar to a cluster of PCV2b strains known to variation of age at puberty and lifetime number of parities. induce clinical signs of PCVAD and high mortality. During a The main candidate gene in this region, arginine vasopressin d experimental challenge, weekly measurements of aver- receptor 1A (AVPR1A), involved in biological processes as- age daily gain (ADG), viremia, and PCV2-specific antibodies sociated with reproductive and social behavior, was character- were profiled. Common sources of variation were evaluated ized to assess its efficiency as a selection marker for early age by estimating pairwise correlations between phenotypic and at puberty and increased reproductive longevity. The GG gen- genomic prediction values and by genomewide associations otype of a nonsynonymous SNP located in AVPR1A (G31E) across traits. Viremia was the best indicator of decreased was associated with a d earlier expression of first estrus ADG following infection; moderate phenotypic correlations compared with genotype AA (P < ) and a d earlier between viremia and ADG were observed starting with vire- expression than genotype AG (P < ). The GG genotype mia at 14 d postinfection (dpi) and ADG during the last 2 wk was also associated with more lifetime parities than AA of challenge (r = to ; P < ). The correlation (P < ) and more than AG (P < ). Irrespective of between overall ADG ( d) and viral load was In age at puberty, sows with the GG SAM Broadcaster Pro 2020.8 Crack + Key 4 Mac & Win Download [2021] had a higher prob- contrast, the correlation between ADG and PCV2-specific an- ability of generating first and second parities than sows with tibodies, IgM ( to ) and IgG ( to ), were AA and AG genotypes (P < ). AVPR1A is expressed in weak. Correlations between genomic prediction values were the pituitary, granulosa cells, and ovarian cortex. Sequencing the largest between viremia at 21 dpi and ADG during the last AVPR1A in gilts exhibiting puberty early ( d, n = 8) 3 wk of challenge ( to ; P < ). A genome- and late ( d, n = 8) uncovered two novel nonsynony- wide association study that included 56, SNPs uncovered mous SNPs (GD and KQ). SNP GD is located in two major SNPs that explain (ALGA, SSC12) the third intracellular loop of AVPR1A and was in complete and % (ALGA, SSC7, Mb), respectively, of linkage disequilibrium with G31E, located in the extracel- the genetic variation for viral load. The SNP ALGA lular NH2terminus, which has a role in agonist binding and is located next to the SLA II complex of genes known for their intracellular signaling. The SNP KQ is located at the C role in immune response. These SNPs partially explained the terminus, involved in coordinating protein interactions with negative correlations between viremia and ADG. The geno- AVPR1A. A difference in allelic frequency was observed type CC of ALGA was associated with lower viral between gilts that expressed puberty early and late for G31E load () compared to genotype TT (; P < ) and and GD compared to for KQ. The frequency of genotype CT (; P < ). Genotype CC was also asso- 12

20 ciated with higher overall ADG ( kg) compared to geno- tions of phenotypic variation similar to that obtained from type TT ( kg; P < ) and genotype CT ( kg; P high-density SNP panels. < ). These results could lead to increased knowledge of Key Words: genomic prediction, puberty, swine the swine immune system and identification of genes involved in PCVAD susceptibility. Selection of parent stock based on DNA markers associated with PCVAD has the potential to re- Variance component estimates for alternative litter duce economic losses, improve animal welfare, and provide size and piglet mortality traits. A. M. Putz1,*, K. A. alternatives to vaccination. Gray2, M. Knauer1, 1North Carolina State University, Key Words: genetics, PCVAD, swine Raleigh, 2Smithfield Premium Genetics, Rose Hill, NC. The objective of this study was to estimate variance compo- nents for litter size and mortality traits at different time points. Genomic prediction of age at puberty in sows using Traits analyzed included number born alive (NBA), litter size Bayesian methods. K. L. Lucot*, M. L. Spangler, S. at d 2 (LS2), litter size at d 5 (LS5), litter size at d 30 (LS30), D. Kachman, D. C. Ciobanu, University of Nebraska, piglet mortality at d 5 (MortD5), and piglet mortality at d 30 Lincoln. (MortD30). Day 30 was chosen for two reasons: 1) The aver- Including DNA markers in selection programs is potentially age wean age over the 4 yr was d and 2) it is important more efficient than traditional selection for improving traits to include mortalities from early docking in the nursery phase. that are expensive or difficult to measure. The challenge of Data were obtained on Large White litters from Smith- genomics is the lack of robustness of marker effects across field Premium Genetics collected from June through populations and over time (generations) and the cost to com- May Data management and phenotypic analyses were mercial producers of high-density arrays. The objective of this completed with the R statistical environment. Litter size traits study was to analyze differences in the proportion of pheno- were the number of pigs alive on the respective number of days typic variation explained by different fractions of major 1 Mb postfarrowing. All mortality traits were calculated as percent- windows and SNPs. Using a population of Nebraska Index age of dead pigs from TNB on each of the respective days post- Line and commercial Large White Landrace females (n = farrowing, including stillborn piglets. Genetic analyses were ) generated in 11 batches, we conducted a genomewide completed using the BLUPF90 family of programs. A basic association analysis for age at puberty (AP) using a Bayes B animal model was fit with fixed effects of parity, yearsea- algorithm with a pi value of and the concatenation of son, and farm and random effect of permanent environment. diet and batch fitted as a fixed effect. A total of 56, SNPs Two-trait models were fit between all combinations of traits. explained of the phenotypic variation for AP. Analysis Heritability estimates of traits were averaged over the models of the genetic variance explained by 1 Mb windows across in which they were involved. All traits were treated as traits the genome uncovered major regions associated with AP. The of the birth sow, ignoring cross-fostering effects. Heritability proportion of the phenotypic variation explained by all SNPs estimates for NBA, LS2, LS5, LS30, MortD5, and MortD30 within the top 1, 5, 10, and 20% windows varied from were,andrespective- (1% windows; SNPs) to (10% windows; 19, ly. Phenotypic variance estimates for NBA, LS2, LS5, LS30, SNPs). In contrast, the proportion of the phenotypic variation MortD5, and MortD30 were,explained by the most informative SNP from these windows andrespectively. Phenotypic and genetic correlations varied from (1% windows; 24 SNPs) to (20% win- between LS2 with NBA, LS5, LS30, MortD5, and MortD30 dows; SNPs). Different pi values (0,Mathcad 15.0 M050 Free Download with Crack,and were, and and,) had a limited effect on the proportion of phenotypicandrespectively. DriverPack Solution Crack 17.11.47 + License Key 2021 ( Latest Version ) and genetic corre- variation explained by the top 1 ( to ) and 10% ( lations between LS5 with NBA, LS30, MortD5, and MortD30 to ) windows. The first seven batches were used as train- were pdf annotator 7.0 0.701 crack - Free Activators, and and,and ing data (B1B7, n = ) to evaluate the ability of majorrespectively. LS2 or LS5 could be used as alternatives SNPs and windows to predict AP in subsequent batches. The to NBA as the main component trait of maternal line breeds to pooled simple correlation between genomic prediction values increase NBA and decrease preweaning mortalities. (GPV) and adjusted AP phenotypes was in B8 through Key Words: genetic correlation, litter size, B11 (n = ) when 56, SNPs were used. When GPV were piglet mortality derived using the most informative SNP from each of the top 10% windows or all SNPs from the top 10% windows identi- fied in training, rGPV,AP was andrespectively. Weaker Divergent selection for age at puberty impacts sow correlations were obtained when the most informative SNP reproduction. C. L. Ferring*, M. Knauer, North Caro- or all of the 360 total security license key free - Crack Key For U from the top 1% windows were used for lina State University, Raleigh. prediction ( andrespectively). These results showed The objective of the study was to associate selection for age at that a limited number of SNPs were able to explain propor- puberty with first litter reproductive performance. Estrous data 13

21 Table First litter reproductive performance for gilts diver- Table Genetic correlations between litter quality traits for gently selected for age at puberty Landrace (above diagonal) and Large White (below diagonal). Genetic Line CV_ CV_ Young age Old age TNB NBA BWT BWT NW QWP WWT WWT Trait at puberty at puberty SE P-value TNB Number born alive NBA Average birth weight, kg BWT Movienizer 10.3 crack birth weight, kg CV_BWT Number weaned Average weaning weight, kg NW Litter weaning weight, kg QWP Exhibited estrous by 7 d after 88 58 WWT weaning, % CV_WWT was collected from a cohort of PIC Landrace Large White gilts (n = ) at the NCDA Tidewater Research Station. Gilts ber born alive (NBA), litter birth weight (BWT), CV_BWT, were placed in curtain-sided buildings on fully slotted floors number weaned (NW), QWP, litter weaning weight (WWT), in groups of 15 ( m2 per pig). Fans and timed misters were and CV_WWT. Variance components and genetic correla- used for cooling once temperatures reached 27C. Starting at tions were estimated with ASReml using two trait models. All d of age, each group of gilts was penned with three mature models included fixed effects of contemporary group (herd boars for 7 min daily and estrous behavior recorded. Puberty year month) and parity, a covariate of age at first farrowing, was defined as the first observed standing reflex to the back- and a random effect of sow. Models for BWT and WWT also pressure test. Both a young and an old age at puberty group of included NBA and NW, respectively, as a covariate. Heritabil- gilts (average age at puberty and d, respectively) were ity estimates for TNB, NBA, BWT, CV_BWT, NW, QWP, kept for breeding. Both groups of gilts were mated to the same WWT, and CV_WWT for Landrace were,12 boars and farrowed during the same month. Sow reproduc- andrespectively, and for Large tive traits measured included number born alive, average birth White were,,andweight, litter birth weight, number weaned, average weaning respectively. Phenotypic variance estimates for TNB, NBA, weight, litter weaning weight, and whether a sow exhibited BWT, CV_BWT, NW, QWP, WWT, and CV_WWT for Land- estrus by 7 d after weaning (W2E_7). Analysis of variance race were,,andwas used to analyze continuous reproductive traits and a chi- respectively, and for Large White were, squared analysis was used for the categorical trait, W2E_7., andrespectively. Genetic cor- Table 1 shows the first litter reproductive performance of relations between litter quality traits for both Landrace and the young and old age at puberty groups. Of the first litter Large White are shown in Table 1. Results suggest that selec- reproductive traits measured, only W2E_7 differed (P < ) tion for TNB may increase litter variation in birth and wean- between puberty groups. The current study found a younger ing weight. However, selection for QWP may decrease litter age at puberty did not impact litter traits but had a substantial variation in birth weight for Landrace and reduce litter varia- impact on postweaning expression of estrus. Results suggest tion in weaning weight for both Landrace and Large White. that selection for a younger age at puberty would improve an Key Words: genetic, reproduction, sow important component trait of sow longevity, W2E_7. Key Words: gilt, puberty, reproduction Genetic relationships and inbreeding coefficients of swine breeds. K. Roberts*, W. R. Lamberson, Univer- Estimates of variance components for swine litter sity of Missouri, Columbia. quality traits. E. B. Cook1,*, M. T. See1, K. A. Gray2, Genetic diversity allows adaptation to environmental changes M. Knauer1, 1North Carolina State University, Raleigh, and varied disease resistance. Without such diversity, a popu- 2 Smithfield Premium Genetics, Recoverit free trial Hill, NC. lation could be decimated by disease or environmental fluc- The objective of the study was to estimate variance compo- tuations. Swine breeds facing extinction share characteristics nents for swine litter quality traits, including three new litter such as small size, slow growth rate, and high fat percentage, traits: number of piglets weaned weighing kg (QWP), which eliminate them from the high-input high-output busi- CV for piglet birth weight (CV_BWT), and CV for piglet ness of commercial production. Small populations and lack weaning weight (CV_WWT). Reproductive data and pedi- of genetic information increases the chance that producers gree information were obtained for Landrace (n = ) and are breeding closely related individuals, which ultimately Large White (n = ) litters from Smithfield Premium Ge- eliminates genetic diversity by increasing levels of homo- netics. Litter traits included total number born (TNB), num- zygosity in subsequent generations. By making genetic data available, producers can make more educated breeding deci- 14

22 Table the monogastric feed formulation done today. This concept, Breed n R F however, is rooted in close to 80 yr of research, with work Guinea 14 a a and debate windows 10 loader - Activators Patch today. The initial concepts of an ideal Ossabaw Island 10 b b protein, a profile of amino acids that most closely resembled Red Wattle 5 bc a an intact protein such as whole egg, were revised to a profile Saddleback 22 a d of amino acids that most closely beyond compare 4 license key revoked the requirements of an Mulefoot 4 d ab animal for maintenance and growth through construction of Duroc 20 a a a purified crystalline amino acid diet for young chicks. The Landrace 20 e c elucidation of nonspecific amino nitrogen requirements, in- Large White 20 ef c terconversion among amino acids, and antagonisms between Pietrain 20 f c amino acids further refined the ideal protein concept. The ini- Tamworth 20 c b tial implementation of the Ideal Protein for commercial live- sions to preserve genetic diversity in future generations. Hair stock production occurred inwhen the British Agricul- samples were collected from Guinea, Ossabaw Island, Red ture Research Council proposed an ideal protein for swine that Wattle, American Saddleback, and Mulefoot pigs and geno- presented essential amino acids requirements as a percentage typed with the Porcine 60K SNP chip. Publicly available ge- of lysine, with is first-limiting amino acid for protein depo- notyping data were obtained for British Saddleback, Duroc, sition in most swine diets. From this point, much work was Landrace, Large White, Pietrain, and Tamworth pigs. PLINK done to estimate the ratios of essential amino acids relative to was used to construct a genomic relationship matrix and to lysine that maximized performance. Much work has continued calculate inbreeding coefficients. The following table summa- to focus across multiple physiological states, from growth to rizes average relationships (R) between individuals (n) within pregnancy and lactation. The impact of immune challenge and a breed, and average inbreeding coefficient (F) of individu- nutrient composition of diets have been studied to determine als within a breed. American Saddleback and British Saddle- their role in ideal protein requirements. This concept has been back showed relatedness across the two breeds, so they were applied across livestock species as well as companion animals. combined. The model was significant (P-value < ) and Key Words: history, ideal protein, pigs significant differences across breeds are indicated by super- scripts ( ). Popular breeds (Landrace, Large White, and Duroc) exhibit lower levels of R between individuals, on Current knowledge about ideal protein for growing average, as compared to R between individuals of endangered pigs. J. van Milgen1,*, N. Le Floch1, E. Corrent2, M. breeds, especially Ossabaw Island, Red Wattle, Mulefoot, and Gloaguen1, 1INRA, Saint Gilles, France, 2Ajinomoto Tamworth. Following a similar pattern, F is high for Ossabaw Eurolysine, Paris, France. Island, Tamworth, and Mulefoot and low for Large White and Improving the efficiency of nitrogen use and maintaining per- Landrace. While less common in the United States, Pietrain formance can be achieved by reducing the crude protein con- is a popular breed in Europe, which likely accounts for low tent of diet while ensuring that amino acid requirements, de- R and F values. Having complete pedigrees and large popu- fined as the minimum amino acid supply required to obtain a lations allows commercial breeds to maintain low levels of maximum response, are met. The use of synthetic amino acids R and F within a population. For heritage type breeds, lack and analogues allows formulating diets where 7 amino acids of popularity means fewer individuals to select among, and, are co-limiting for performance (i.e., Lys, Met, Met+Cys, Thr, within a viable populous, even fewer have known pedigrees. Trp, Val, and a seventh amino acid). Knowledge of the require- This research is the first step toward preserving genetic diver- ments of these amino acids has been a limiting factor for the sity by providing producers with accurate genetic information. further reduction of protein content in the diet and thus for im- Key Words: swine genetics proving the efficiency of nitrogen utilization. Doseresponse experiments are usually performed to estimate the amino acid requirement. The experimental design, the mode of express- ing the amino acid supply, the response criterion used, and the DAVID BAKER AMINO ACIDS statistical analysis method affect the amino acid requirement SYMPOSIUM estimates. Very little experimental evidence exists for the re- quirements of amino acids such as Val, Ile, Leu, His, Phe, and Tyr. Our group has performed an experimental research pro- A short history of ideal protein. N. R. Augspurger*, gram to study the response of piglets to the supply of these JBS United, Inc., Sheridan, IN. amino acids. In addition, meta-analyses were used to analyze The Ideal Protein concept, defined as an ideal pattern of ami- the existing body of literature. Based on current knowledge no acids is one that meets requirements for the sum of meta- and expressed on a standardized ileal digestible basis relative bolic processes with minimal excesses, is applied in much of to Lys, our recommended ideal amino acid profile for grow- 15

23 ing pigs is 30% Met, 60% Met+Cys, 65% Thr, 22% Trp, 70% pen. Initial BW for the 3 experiments were, and Val, 52% Ile, % Leu, 31% His, 54% Phe, and 40% Tyr. kg, respectively. Dietary treatments in all experiments were 1) For the amino acids we have studied, these estimates include High CP, High Lys, and High Trp:Lys (HHH), 2) Low CP, High a safety margin because requirement estimates were obtained Lys, and High Trp:Lys (LHH), 3) Low CP, Low Lys, and High using a curvilinear-plateau model, ensuring that the require- Trp:Lys (LLH), and 4) Low CP, Low Lys, and Low Trp:Lys ment of most pigs in the population is met. A 10% deficiency (LLL). Data were analyzed using Proc Mixed with pen as the relative to the requirement results in a growth reduction ofexperimental unit. Lowering CP (HHH vs. LHH) did not influ-,and % for Trp, Val, Ile, Leu, His, Phe, ence performance in any experiment, except G:F were greater and Tyr, respectively. The reduction in growth was mostly due in HHH compared to LHH in Exp. 1 and 3. Decreasing lysine to a reduction in feed intake. An excess supply of an amino (LHH vs. LLH) reduced ADG and G:F in Exp. 1 but did not acid can reduce the availability of other amino acids due to significantly reduce ADG or G:F in Exp. 2 or 3. Decreasing competition for catabolism and transport. For example, the Trp:Lys ratio (LLH vs. LLL) decreased ADG and G:F in all use of blood cells (high in Val, Leu, His, and Phe) increases experiments. It appears that Lys was not as limiting as expect- the Ile requirement while excess Leu aggravates the effect of ed in Exp. 2 and 3, but pig performance was improved when a Val deficiency. Knowledge of the response of animals to the Trp:Lys was increase from to 20%. In conclusion, a low amino acid supply allows formulating diets with a precision CP diet formulated % below the SID Lys requirement at protein profile that approaches that of ideal protein. the end of the dietary phase appears to be valid to ensure pigs Key Words: amino acids, ideal protein, pigs are below their Lys requirement to test the Trp:Lys ratio. Key Words: amino acids, pigs, tryptophan Validating dietary approach to determine the Trp:Lys ratio for pigs. M. A. D. Goncalves1,*, M. Effect of feeding reduced-CP, amino acid supple- D. Tokach1, S. S. Dritz1, K. J. Touchette2, J. M. DeR- mented diets on dietary nitrogen and energy utiliza- ouchey1, J. C. Woodworth1, R. D. Goodband1, 1Kansas tion and volatile fatty acid excretion in wean-to-finish State University, Manhattan, 2Ajinomoto Heartland, swine. A. M. Jones1,*, D. T. Kelly1, B. T. Richert1, C. V. Inc., Chicago, IL. Maxwell2, J. S. Radcliffe1, 1Purdue University, West La- fayette, IN, 2University of Arkansas, Fayetteville. Three experiments were conducted to validate a dietary ap- proach to determine the optimal standardized ileal digestible Thirty-two barrows (initial BW kg) were used to (SID) Trp:Lys ratio for pigs. Cornsoybean mealbased diets evaluate the effect of feeding reduced-CP, amino acid (AA) with 30% DDGS were used with different Crack files download sites - Crack Key For U Trp:Lys ratios supplemented diets on nutrient and VFA excretion. Pigs were ( vs. 20%), CP (3% points difference), z3x samsung tool pro 37.0 crack - Activators Patch SID Lys levels randomly allotted to the following diets: 1) Control: Corn (% below requirement at the end of the phase vs. % SBMDDGS diets with no synthetic AA, 2) 1X reduction in above requirement at the beginning of the phase). Lysine re- CP, 3) 2X reduction in CP, and 4) 3X ytd video downloader pro 5.9.7 full crack - Crack Key For U in CP. Diet 4, quirements were estimated using NRC () model. All ex- the 3X reduction in CP, was balanced on the seventh limiting periments had 11 pens/treatment, were 21 d in duration, and AA. Diets 2 and 3 were then formulated to have stepwise and used to gilts (PIC ) with 24 to 28 pigs/ equally spaced reductions in CP between Diets 1 and 4. Diets 2 through 4 were supplemented with synthetic amino acids Table as needed to meet amino acid needs based on NRC () Diet HHH LHH LLH LLL SEM requirements. All diets were formulated to have identical ME Exp. 1 content. Feed was supplied twice daily at approximately 95% CP, % of ad libitum intake for each dietary phase to minimize orts. SID Lys, % Four nursery phases (d 07, ddiobit malware fighter 6.3 serial key - Crack Key For U d ) ADG, g c c b a and 5 growfinish phases (21 d phases) were fed. Pigs were G:F d c b a housed in stainless-steel metabolism pens ( m2) equipped Exp. 2 with a nipple waterer and stainless steel feeder. Two pigs were CP, % housed per pen during the nursery phase, with one pig be- SID Lys, % ing removed on d 42 postweaning. Collections started with ADG, g b b b a G:F b b b a nursery phase 3 and during nursery phases pigs were allowed Exp. 3 an 8-d adjustment period to the diets followed by a 3 d total CP, % collection of feces, urine, and orts. During the GrowFinish SID Lys, % phases, pigs were acclimated to diets for the first 10 d of each ADG, g c bc b a phase, and then feces, urine, and orts were collected for 3 d. G:F a b b c Acetic (P < ), propionic (P < ), and butyric acid (P a,b,c,d P < < ) concentrations in the feces were linearly decreased by 16

24, and %, respectively, as dietary CP was reduced modeled or determined based on the growth of the sow-fetal from control to 3X. Calculated DE and ME values based on unit. Therefore, pregnant sows should be fed to their changing analyzed GE content of feed, feces, and urine were linearly individual needs throughout their reproductive to achieve opti- reduced (P < ) with increasing reductions in dietary CP mal performance return from both sows and offspring. (DE:,and kcal/kg; ME:, Key Words: amino acids, pig, pregnancyand kcal/kg). A tendency (P = ) for a linear reduction in dietary N intake (% lower in 3X vs. Control) was observed, which was partially responsible for the % Abstract withdrawn linear reduction (P < ) in N excretion (, and g/d). In conclusion, low CP diets with synthetic AA result in lower DE and ME values for the diet but significantly reduce N and VFA excretion. DAVID SCHINGOETHE SYMPOSIUM: Key Words: nitrogen retention, swine HEIFER NUTRITION AND THE FUTURE Novel approaches to estimating amino acid require- Future perspective on accelerated milk replacer ments and amino acid ratios in diets fed to gestating feeding. J. G. Linn*, N. B. Litherland, University of sows. S. Moehn*, R. O. Ball, University of Alberta, Minnesota, St. Paul. Edmonton, AB, Canada. Accelerated milk replacer feeding can be defined as feeding Nutrition of pregnant sows has received little attention in the a high enough plane of nutrition from liquid feeding to meet recent past, in part because of the time needed to conduct con- maintenance requirements and provide nutrients to support ventional experiments in sows. We conducted experiments the genetic potential for growth rate. Traditional milk replacer specifically designed to determine requirements in early (EG) feeding practices have focused on meeting maintenance re- and late gestation (LG) for amino acids (AA), using the indi- quirements and modest growth rates early in the liquid feeding cator AA oxidation technique, and for energy using indirect phase followed by starter grain xlstat 2018 full crack - Activators Patch for enhanced growth late calorimetry. Because the indicator AA oxidation technique in the liquid feeding phase and before weaning. Data clearly only needs 2 to 3 d of adaptation, 6 6 Latin square experi- support advantages to increasing the plane of nutrition early ments to determine AA requirements could completed within in the calfs life to support growth rates that double birth body a 3-wk period, and the same animals could be tested in EG and weight by weaning. Enhanced early life stage nutrition likely LG. The implantation of subcutaneous vascular access ports induces cellular changes and hormonal signaling that prepare allowed the study of protein turnover and metabolomic pro- the calf to take advantage of a nutrient rich environment later files in the same sows in consecutive parities. in life for expression of true genetic lactation potential. New models for pregnant sow requirements add up the Implementation of feeding a higher plane of nutrition AA and energy deposition in body components, together with during the liquid feeding phase has been met with some chal- estimates of maintenance, and then apply estimates of the ef- lenges in the field. Not all calves have accepted the higher nu- ficiency of AA and energy utilization to Coolmuster PDF Password Remover License key require- trient intake well and the greater amounts of nutrient delivery ments. These models can calculate requirements for a wide through liquid feeding have reduced starter grain intake and range of physical and performance characteristics of sows. delayed rumen development. The introduction of automated Although there is some disagreement among models and em- calf feeding systems or feeding liquids more than twice daily pirical data regarding the absolute values of requirements, the through traditional methods may be ways to avoid the sati- core results are similar. In agreement with our empirical data, ety effects. Additionally, precision feeding programs, such as these models predict much greater requirements for AA in feeding on a percentage of body weight, can potentially op- LG vs. EG and a decrease in AA requirements with increas- timize nutrient intake per individual calf and help reduce the ing parity number. Models and empirical data indicate that risk of over- or underfeeding. Balancing nutrient intake from the changes in requirements from EG to LG and with sow both liquid and solid feeds during the liquid feeding phase age differ among AA, so that the ideal AA pattern changes will likely be the best way of achieving desired growth rates, throughout a sows reproductive life. While the ideal protein optimizing efficiency of growth, and consistently producing for pregnant gilts resembles that for growing pigs, it will be a healthy replacement heifer. closer to that needed for maintenance for adult sows in EG. Historically all milk protein milk replacers have iobit advanced systemcare free Therefore, the same diet may be first limiting in different AA used in accelerated calf feeding programs. Alternative non- in EG vs. LG and in gilts vs. adult sows. milk proteins are likely to replace some of the milk protein Experiments manipulating AA and/or energy allowances in accelerated milk replacers as the cost of whey protein and showed that optimal subsequent sow and piglet performance is other milk proteins increase and the use of whey in human likely achieved by feeding pregnant sows close to requirements protein supplements and food products increases. Addition- 17

25 ally, as dairy herds have become larger the use of pasteurized nonsaleable milk in replacement of a milk replacer increases. How much dietary fat should growing prepubertal Programs designed to optimize milk solids intake to achieve dairy heifers be fed? J. L. Anderson* South Dakota success as an accelerated calf feeding program are needed. State University, Brookings. Key Words: calves, milk replacer Diets for growing dairy heifers have, historically, been for- age based with very low fat concentrations. Supplemental fat has been considered uneconomical to feed to dairy heifers, Nutrition and management of automatic calf and therefore, it has become an often overlooked nutrient in feeding systems. T. Earleywine*, Land OLakes dairy heifer rations. However, with the increased interest in Animal Milk Products, Cottage Grove, WI. the use of biofuel coproducts, which are higher in fat content Since dairy calves are the only mammalian neonates that are than traditional feeds, and the high price of corn, this nutrient limit-fed milk, producers have been challenged to find ways deserves a second look. Additionally, dietary energy sources to keep them alive, healthy, and growing. Automatic calf need to be reconsidered when heifers are fed using alterna- feeding equipment has been around for decades but due to tive feeding strategies, such as precision feeding. Literature improvements in technology and the desire to find a better searches on feeding dietary fat to dairy heifers yield very lim- way their popularity has increased. Seven years of research ited findings. These findings often lead to more questions than on over calves at our facility as well as research done at answers on how fat will affect growth and development of academic institutions will be covered. The positives such as growing heifers. In contrast, there is a relative abundance of the appearance of improved welfare, potential labor savings/ research GoldWave 6.32 Crack + License Key Full Version Download feeding fat to mature dairy cows, dairy calves, and flexibility, higher nutrition levels provided, and more frequent beef cattle, on which most of the current recommendations for meals will be discussed. The negatives such as maintenance heifers are based. This presentation will describe key findings and cleaning, biosecurity, and potential increase in respiratory from research and suggest how to best utilize dietary fat as challenge will also be reviewed. a nutrient for growing dairy heifers. Positive effects of feed- Key Words: automatic calf feeding equipment, ing fat such as increased feed efficiency, changes in metabolic dairy calves profile, and reproductive performance will be weighed against the negative effects such as overconditioning and decreased fiber utilization. From this literature review, recommendations Formulating starter diets to meet nutrient on feeding fat will be made and potential areas for future re- requirements of dairy calves during rapid early search will be discussed. growth. J. K. Drackley and S. Y. Morrison*, University Key Words: dairy heifers, dietary fat of Illinois, Urbana. The importance of calf starters in enabling calves to make Finding the future now Health, genomics, and the transition from milk to solid feeds is well known. Starters calves. A. L. Stanton*, University of Wisconsin- must be palatable to encourage intake, must contain easily fer- Madison, Madison. mentable and digestible ingredients, and must provide a bal- anced profile of absorbed nutrients. With the renewed interest The rearing of replacement heifers and breeding of cattle has in providing increased nutrients from milk or milk replacer become much more complicated due to the increase in knowl- early in life, however, the optimal formulation of starters to edge about the longer term impacts of calf care in the first 90 d enable calves to make the transition without slumps pdf annotator 7.0 0.701 crack - Free Activators growth on lifetime productivity and the ability to genomically predict remains controversial. The largest uncertainties lie in predict- genetic production potential. The health of heifers under 90 ing rates of ruminal carbohydrate fermentation and the result- d of age has been shown to have long-term impacts on their ing microbial protein synthesis. Demonstrations of the ben- future productivity. This has resulted in increased focus on efits of fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides such as soluble prevention of calfhood illness. However, the question of what fiber have created opportunities for blends of carbohydrates to do with animals that have become ill is still unclear. beyond traditional cereal starches and forage or cellulosic by- The guidelines on calf nutrition have also been altered product ingredients. Increasing metabolizable protein supply and appear to have long-term impact on the productivity of has shown promise in helping calves maintain high prewean- these calves as adults. There have been several studies that ing growth rates as they transition to solid feed diets. The most have shown that improved growth due to feeding biologically important advances likely will be made by changing the focus appropriate milk levels in the first 60 d are beneficial to the from product formulation to formulating diets that support a calfs future milk production. Ollivett and colleagues () defined level of performance. Further progress in modeling found a positive impact of increasing energy allotments to would be complemented by additional research to define ru- calves on the duration of clinical signs of diarrhea. However, minal dynamics in young calves. the mechanism of this change is still unknown. Further re- Key Words: calves, growth, starter search is needed to determine how genetics and epigenetics 18

26 interact with health status and increased nutritional planes. from viewing horses as farm animals, the concept of equine Genomics is changing the dairy industry and future professional becomes both complex and ambiguous. While implications are unknown. One potential role of genetics is the equine industry continues with needs and expectations management and selection of future generations of breeding for hands-on and support work, it also calls for professionals animals. Genomics allows for improved knowledge of the with new and emerging knowledge, skill sets, and approaches. animal genetics at an earlier age. Questions on reliability of Whether a curriculum focuses on the science of horse care the results and the impact of other calf factors, such as health or the business components of the horse industry, successful and phenotype, are still being expressed by producers and preparation for the 21st century hinges on preparing profes- have anecdotally led to reluctance of producers to use this sionals to work in an environment filled with VUCA: volatility, information. For genomics to be fully integrated into the de- uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity. This term, coined in cision making at the farm level more research is needed on the late s, reflects the reality of a rapidly changing global the economic concerns of testing animals genomically, the environment that is both highly connected and largely dispa- reliability of it to find the best cows and the worst cows, and rate. Equine professionals will be best served by recognizing a decision model that includes not only genetic factors but the critical importance of thinking beyond the day-to-day re- also phenotypic factors that increase the reliability of not just sponsibilities of horse care and embracing the importance of future generations of animals but also those in the current advocacy and broad interconnectedness. As educators, it is herd and increased education of the strengths and weaknesses our job to assess the backgrounds, interests, and perceptions of these tools. of our students and develop curriculums that address current Knowledge of genetics and calf health has evolved and and future industry needs and to do so within an expanded will continue to do so. Understanding of the commercial view of the equine industry and the broader mindsets critical applications and scientific principles that underline these to growth and success. changes and how they interact will be essential for producers [1] Bump, K.D., Livermore, J, Williams, T.S. National and scientists in the future. Trends: The entering equine student population. Journal of Key Words: genomics, health, management Equine Veterinary Science 33 () Key Words: career preparation, education, equine EQUINE Development of an undergraduate online horse management course. K. L. Martinson*, M. Palmer, M. Hathaway, E. Glunk, University of Minnesota, Developing equine professionals in the 21st century. Saint Paul. K. D. Bump*, Cazenovia College, Cazenovia, NY; National Association of Equine Affiliated Academics, Online college courses can improve student academic expe- Cazenovia, NY. riences by increasing accessibility, accommodating various learning approaches, and deepening student mastery of the Developing students for careers in the equine industry can be subject matter. The purpose of this abstract is to outline the considered within the three themes of student background, development of an undergraduate online horse management industry need, and changing environment. Industry need has course. In the fall ofa horse management course was always been part of the equation but until recently there was offered online to non-Animal Science majors. A concurrent limited focus on the idea that student background should be in-class section was offered to majors. Twenty-two students considered in this process. In addition, the work environment enrolled in the online section while 29 students enrolled in the for equine professionals was much more static. Curriculums in-class section. The course aimed to provide an introduction were designed on experiences and perceptions of faculty that to the horse industry and careers, breeds, behavior, weight esti- had typically grown up around horses, and coursework was mation, body condition scoring, liability and insurance, forage geared toward students arriving on campus with an agricul- utilization, poisonous plants, pasture management, manure ture background. Today this is dramatically different and data management, facility management, grooming, safe ground from NAEAA studies [1] indicate that many students enter handling, assessing vitals, colic, hoof care, vaccinations, and with limited hands-on equine and/or agricultural background. genetics. Each week, two lectures were recorded using UM- Given this, approaches to developing equine professionals no Connect and posted on the course Moodle website along with longer start with the premise that students arrive at college a PDF handout of the lecture slides. The instructor recorded with a developed understanding of equines and the equine most lectures; however, prerecorded guest lectures were used industry. Coupled with this is the reality that the equine in- periodically. Extension factsheets and journal articles were dustry has entered a dramatically different time where even also posted as supporting learning materials, and a graduate the notion of what it means to own and care for a horse is less student assisted with course management. Each week, students clear. As society moves farther from agriculture and farther were responsible for completing either a quiz, discussion, or 19

27 exam. Throughout the wk semester, 6 quizzes, 6 discus- in knowledge contests at % is even lower, especially con- sions, and 3 exams were posted. Quizzes consisted of 10 one- sidering that states self-reported that youth may have been point multiple-choice or true/false questions that were avail- double counted if they competed in more than one knowledge able for 22 h on Moodle. Students had a maximum of 30 min contest. Interestingly, 2 states require participation in knowl- to complete each quiz and results were automatically graded edge contests for youth to compete in the state show. Sixty- and recorded in the grade book. Discussions were worth 20 two percent of the states reported that low body condition points and were available for 48 h on Moodle. To start the scores is one of the welfare issues they encounter while 56% discussion, two to three questions pertaining to the discussion of the states reported that they encounter too much roughness/ topic were posted by the instructor. Students were responsible yanking/overchecking on the reins. 4-H is well positioned to for posting at least three comments or questions during the develop educational programs to teach youth proper horse specified time. Points were manually assigned after evaluating welfare and responsible ownership, yet only five states (21%) student responses in report logs on Moodle. The three exams have an equine welfare educational program within 4-H. This consisted of 50 multiple-choice and true/false questions each information can be helpful to leaders of these programs when worth 2 points. Exams were available for 22 h and students looking for fresh ideas or possible collaborations and can im- were given a maximum of 90 min to complete each exam on prove the quality of 4-H Horse Programs. Moodle. Exam results were automatically graded and record- Key Words: 4H horse program ed in the grade book. Students were reminded each week of pending assignments via email. Although student evaluations are not yet available, offering an online undergraduate horse Influence of weight loss on skeletal muscle mito- management course appears to be a successful method for de- chondrial function and metabolism in the mature livering material to nonmajors while providing flexibility and horse. J. L. Zambito1,*, H. S. Spooner2, C. E. Nichols1, an alternative learning approach to students. R. M. Hoffman2, J. M. Hollander1, K. M. Barnes1, Key Words: online teaching, horse 1 West Virginia University, Morgantown, 2Middle Ten- nessee State University, Murfreesboro. Obesity causes a multitude of metabolic issues in horses, yet Comparative analysis of state 4-H horse programs. stepwise alterations in glucose and lipid metabolic capability, F. C. Camargo1,*, A. Lawyer1, C. Willis1, R. C. Bott2, mitochondrial capacity, and oxidant status during weight loss 1 University of Kentucky, Lexington, 2South Dakota have not been evaluated. We hypothesized that horses would State University, Brookings. display improvements in morphometric measurements, circu- 4-H is a national youth development program, which is gov- lating metabolic markers, minimal model estimates of glucose erned by land grant institutions that are given the liberty to tolerance, and insulin sensitivity during weight loss over 96 d tailor their program to the individual needs of states. This al- from an obese (7 to 8) to moderate (5) body condition score lows for programs to grow according to the interests of youth (BCS). Furthermore, skeletal muscle contains subsarcolemmal in that area. However, this system means that there is little (SSM) and interfibrillar (IFM) mitochondria, which respond communication between states about how common issues are differently to physiological stimuli; therefore, we hypoth- handled and avoided. Specifically, the 4-H Horse Program is esized horses would display improvements in mitochondrial continually faced with challenges in the horse industry such as subpopulation function and reductions in circulating oxidant animal welfare and compliance with regulations. This study status markers during weight loss sampled every other week. was designed to gather information from state 4-H Horse Pro- Horses displayed significant decreases in all morphometric grams to help each program recognize common issues and measurements (P ) except for abdominal circumference initiate collaborative approaches to develop solutions. A sur- (P = ). A decrease in rump fat thickness from to vey was distributed to 4-H horse contacts representing all 50 mm reflected decreasing body fat mass (P < ). states. Completed surveys were returned from 24 states, yield- Weight loss had no effect on circulating concentrations of glu- ing a response rate of 48%. Of those states that responded, cose or insulin measured every other week. Insulin sensitivity the average number of youth enrolled in the 4-H Horse Pro- increased from to LmU1min-1 gram waswith enrollment ranging from to 25, with both reduction in BCS and weight loss (P ). The youth. All but one state have a state 4-H horse show and 91% disposition index, an assessment of -cell function, tended of the states require youth to wear helmets at least in certain to increase with percent weight loss (P = ) but not lower events. Thirty-nine percent of respondents (9 states) do not BCS. Plasma nitrate trended to decrease in response to BCS require youth to qualify to participate in the state 4-H horse reduction and percent weight loss (P ) whereas erythro- shows. Participation in the state shows varied from 40 youth cyte total glutathione (P = ) concentration increased with to youth with a mean of youth. Thus, slightly over decreasing BCS. Mitochondrial electron transport chain com- 9% of youth enrolled in state 4-H Horse Programs nationwide plexes I and IV displayed greater activity in SSM than IFM are participating in the state 4-H horse shows. Participation (P ) while all complexes in IFM had decreased activity 20

28 due to both weight parameters P ). Interactions between age species (P ). Use of a grazing muzzle decreased subpopulation complex IV activity and weight loss markers the amount of forage consumed by an average of 30% across (P < ) were displayed. Citrate synthase activity, indicat- species and years (P < ). These results will aid horse ing mitochondrial number, was greater in SSM than IFM (P < owners and professionals in estimating forage intake and bal- ) but was unaffected with weight loss. Lipid peroxida- ancing rations of muzzled horses on pasture. tion was decreased with BCS change (P = ) and weight Key Words: grazing, intake, muzzle loss (P = ), displaying greater amounts in SSM than IFM (P ). Few changes in circulating markers along with minute alterations in minimal model parameters suggest that while horses were obese, metabolic function was conserved. EXTENSION DAIRY SYMPOSIUM: Complex activity and lipid peroxidation alterations suggest STRATEGIES TO INCREASE FIBER IFM are more affected by weight loss, with large contribu- DIGESTIBILITY IN LACTATING tions from complex IV byproducts. Mitochondrial component DAIRY COWS flexibility may contribute individually to disease development along with athletic performance in the horse. Key Words: mitochondria, muscle, obesity Agronomic practices that impact the digestibility of fiber by lactating cows. F. N. Owens*, DuPont Pioneer, Johnston, IA. The interaction of grazing muzzle use and grass Ruminal bulk fill limits intake of forage-rich diets early in species on forage intake of horses. E. Glunk*, C. C. lactation with coarse fiber being the primary contributor to Sheaffer, M. Hathaway, K. L. Martinson, University of ruminal fill. This ceiling on feed and energy intake can be lift- Minnesota, Saint Paul. ed either by reducing the dietary concentration of NDF or by Excessive pasture intakes have been linked to the increased increasing the fermentation rate of NDF (NDFD). Numerous incidence of equine obesity and pasture-associated laminitis. genetic (BMR) and environmental factors can alter NDF con- Previous research found that grazing muzzles reduced pasture tent and NDFD of forages. With most grasses and legumes, intake by 83%. However, horses are selective grazers, and NDF content increases and NDFD decreases as plants ma- forage grasses have different growth morphologies. Both fac- ture, largely due to a decreased leaf:stem ratio. Consequently, tors could impact the effectiveness of grazing muzzles; how- earlier harvest, more erect plant stature, harvesting plants at ever, this has not been investigated. Therefore, the objective greater height, and minimizing leaf loss all can increase for- of this research was to determine the effectiveness of grazing age quality. With most forages, yield increases as temperature, muzzles at reducing forage intake when horses were allowed light intensity, nitrogen fertility, and water supply increase. access to different grass species. The study was conducted in However, by accelerating maturation, higher temperatures in- and Four horses were grazed in while three crease NDF content and lignification; factors that retard plant horses were grazed in Before grazing, horses were ac- development help maintain forage quality. Unlike other tropi- climated to wearing a grazing muzzle and grazing for 4 h. cal plants, maize harvested as silage is immature and NDF Four species of perennial, cool-season grasses were grazed in digestibility will not decline if plant health is maintained dur- including: Kentucky bluegrass (KB; prostrate growth ing kernel development. Restricting supply of irrigation water habit, preferred by horses), meadow fescue (MF; upright, pre- increases NDFD of maize plants probably through increasing ferred), perennial ryegrass (PR; prostrate, less preferred), and the leaf:stalk ratio. Changes in NDF and NDFD (48 h) di- reed canarygrass (RC; upright, less preferred). Inonly gestibility of various plant parts was measured for two non- KB and RC were grazed due to winter kill of PR and MF. BMR hybrids harvested across a range in plant DM from 28 Horses were allowed to graze a small pasture ( by m) to 39%. At all DM contents, maize cobs and husks had the seeded with one of the individual grass species for 4 h each highest NDF content; as plant DM increased, NDF content day for 4 consecutive days in June and August of and only for husks increased. NDF content of maize stalks at vari- August and September of Horses grazed the same grass ous heights did not differ, but NDF digestibility always was species for 2 consecutive days, 1 d with the muzzle and 1 d sam broadcaster pro activation key - Crack Key For U for the lower stalk portions. NDFD was greatest for husks without. Before each grazing event, a by m strip was and leaves; NDFD of cobs and leaves dropped as plant DM mechanically harvested from the pasture to determine avail- increased. Plant NDFD dropped from 43 to 42% as plant DM able initial herbage mass. Postgrazing, an adjacent by increased from 28 to 40%. As lignin content increased, NDFD m strip was harvested to determine residual forage mass. The dropped for stalks. For the other plant parts, NDFD was not difference (on a dry matter basis) was used to estimate horse altered by the fractional percentages of hemicellulose, cellu- forage intake. Data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED lose, or lignin in NDF nor was it altered by ratios among these procedure of SAS, with statistical significance set at P components. As maize kernels matured from half-milk line The effectiveness of a grazing muzzle was not affected by for- to black line, kernel weight increased by over 20%. Based on 21

29 Milk equations and analysis of plant nutrients at harvest, have been measured in vivo feeding studies. The pdNDF, kd, milk yield per metric ton harvested or per hectare should peak and kp and parameters predicted by the TTNDFD model ap- at and % DM, respectively, for unprocessed maize pear to be consistent with in vivo measures. silage. Delaying harvest to and % DM, respectively, Key Words: dairy, fiber, NDF digestibility should give peak milk yield per ton or per hectare for pro- cessed maize silage. Key Words: maize, maturity, NDF Measuring forage quality of corn silage and un- derstanding the impacts on rumen fermentation in lactating dairy cattle. P. J. Kononoff*, University of TTNDFD: A new approach to evaluate forage fiber Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln. digestibility. D. K. Combs*, F. Lopes, University of Last year the USDA estimated that million tons of corn Wisconsin, Madison. silage was produced. This was up 4% from the previous year We hypothesize that an estimate of total tract NDF digest- and was also the highest production in the United States since ibility (TTNDFD) can provide useful information about fi- Given that corn silage is commonly included in diets for ber utilization. Our objective is to present an approach for dairy cattle at 30 to 50% of the DM, this crop represents an im- predicting in vivo total tract NDF digestibility from in vitro portant feedstuff to the dairy industry. Additionally, given that NDF digestibility measurements. The parameters needed to the chemical composition and nutrient availability of best photo editor for pc free feed estimate TTNDFD include the proportion of potentially di- may vary, quality of this feedstuff is central to dairy production gestible fiber (pdNDF), the digestion rate of the pdNDF (kd), and profitability. The term forage quality is often defined by the the ruminal passage rate of pdNDF (kp), and postruminal di- extent to which the forage elicits a productive response. Fun- gestion of NDF. The in vitro TTNDFD approach accounts for damentally speaking the nature of pdf annotator 7.0 0.701 crack - Free Activators response is dependent ruminal and postruminal fiber digestion and can be adjusted on the availability of forage nutrients to rumen microorganism. for changes in fiber passage as size or intake of the animal Plant factors that affect this availability include maturity, hy- changes. The TTNDFD method has been validated with in brid, and growing conditions. Additionally, harvesting and en- vivo experiments. In one study, Lopes et al. () compared siling practices may also affect nutrient availability and these estimates of TTNDFD as predicted by the in vitro model to include the method of chopping, length of cut, extent of kernel in vivo measurements in lactating dairy cows. Cows were fed processing, and time of ensiling. Lastly, a number of animal diets that varied in proportions of corn silage and alfalfa. The factors may also influence nutrient availability including level diets contained 55% forage and the dietary NDF concentra- of intake, nutrient demands, behavioral patterns, and animal tion was similar across treatments. Milk yields were similar health. Attributes of good quality forage usually include a high amongst diets. The Spotify 1.0.86.337 Crack Keygen - Free Activators (in vivo) TTNDFD values were intake potential, high nutrient concentration, and high digest- calculated from feed and fecal samples. Cows consuming the ibility or nutrient availability. Forage quality is commonly as- diet with alfalfa as the only forage had higher NDF digestibil- sessed through chemical and physical analysis and near-infrared ity than cows on the diets that contained corn silage. The NDF spectroscopy as well as using a number of in vivo and in vitro digestibility coefficients predicted by the in vitro TTNDFD methods. The purpose of this presentation is to review how for- method were similar to the in vivo values. The TTNDFD age quality affects rumen fermentation, microbial digestion, analysis can provide important insights into fiber utilization and how factors that affect forage quality may be manipulated by dairy cattle. The rates of fiber degradation determined from to ultimately contribute to greater milk production. the in vitro NDFD assays appear to be consistent with what Key Words: corn silage, forage quality, rumen fermentation, dairy production Table Effect of changing ratios of corn silage to alfalfa on intake, production, and fiber digestion in dairy cows. Corn silage (CS): CS 67CS 33CS 0CS The impact of nonforage fiber sources on fiber alfalfa (AS) ratio 0AS 33AS 67AS AS Corn silage, % of TMR 56 37 18 0 digestibility. B. Bradford*, Kansas State University, Alfalfa silage, % of TMR 0 Zemana AntiMalware 3.2.28 Crack + Activation Key Free Download 2021 37 55 Manhattan. Concentrate mix, % of TMR 44 44 45 45 Nonforage fiber sources (NFFS) have been used in ruminant Diet NDF, % iobit uninstaller 8.5 crack - Activators Patch DM diets for many years. However, some dairy operations are now SE reaching inclusion rates of these feedstuffs that substantially DMI, kg/d ab a b c greater than the traditional target of 10 to 15% of dry matter. 4% FCM, kg/d Observed TTNDFD, a ab ab c Heavy reliance on feedstuffs with high NDF content but small in vivo particle size could potentially have major impacts on kinet- Predicted TTNDFD, ics of both fiber digestion and passage. Furthermore, when in vitro such ingredients are used to partially replace starch sources, Values within row with different superscripts differ, P < there is potential for positive associative effects on forage fi- a,b,c 22

30 ber digestion. Critical impediments to a clearer understand- versus CON. From 68 kg to harvest, pigs fed diets containing ing of NFFS-reliant diets include the lack of relevant data on NAR had a higher G:F ( vs. ; P = ) than digestion kinetics and, more importantly, the great diversity in those fed CON diets. Overall, pigs fed diets containing NAR composition and characteristics of different NFFS. Neverthe- had a faster ADG ( vs. kg/d; P = ) and an less, several studies have investigated the effects of common increased G:F ( vs. ; P = ) versus CON. Pigs NFFS on ruminal fermentation characteristics, microbial pop- fed diets containing NAR had a higher carcass weight ( ulations, and total-tract nutrient digestion. In general, NFFS- vs. kg; P = ) than pigs fed CON. In the two-study reliant diets that are formulated to support high levels of milk analysis, pigs fed NAR from to kg ( vs. production do not appear to provide an associative benefit or ; P < ) and 68 kg to harvest ( vs. or for forage fiber digestibility, nor have consistent increases ; P < ) had a higher G:F than those fed CON or VIR, in ruminal pH or shifts in rumen microbial populations been respectively. From kg to harvest, pigs fed diets contain- observed. Although empirical data are limited, sufficient ing NAR had a higher G:F ( vs. or ; P < physically effective forage NDF is likely critical for efficient ) than CON or VIR. Overall, pigs fed NAR had Webcam Surveyor Free Download higher ruminal digestion of NDF from NFFS, both by maintaining ADG, G:F, and HCW than those fed CON and a higher G:F ruminal pH and by providing a fiber mat to slow passage of than those fed VIR. the small particles. Determining the ideal forage NDF level Key Words: narasin, pigs, virginiamycin in low-starch, high-NFFS diets is key to allowing increased dry matter intake while maintaining high digestive efficiency. Key Words: byproducts, digestion, fiber, The effect of regrinding DDGS and SBM on pellet ruminal kinetics quality in swine finishing diets. W. J. Pacheco1,*, M. Knauer1, E. van Heugten1, C. R. Stark1, A. C. Fahren- holz1, C. E. Phillips2, 1North Carolina State University, Raleigh, 2Murphy-Brown LLC, Rose Hill, NC. EXTENSION SWINE The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of regrinding major Auslogics Anti-Malware Keygen - Crack Key For U ingredients on pellet quality in swine fin- Effects of Skycis and Stafac on growth and isher diets. Feed was produced at the NCSU Feed Mill Educa- carcass performance of finishing pigs A meta- tional Unit. Cornsoy diets contained % corn, % soy- analysis. R. A. Arentson1,*, J. J. Chewning2, S. N. bean meal (SBM), and % poultry fat (PF). Diets containing Carr3, G. L. Allee4, M. C. Brumm5, E. G. McMillan6, corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) comprised 1 Elanco, Greenfield, IN, 2Swine Research Services, 53% corn, 30% DDGS, % SBM, and % PF. Of the % Inc., Springdale, AR, 3Elanco Animal Health, A cross-platform - Free Activators in each diet, % was added in the pdf annotator 7.0 0.701 crack - Free Activators and % was Greenfield, IN, 4Pork Tech, LLC, Columbia, MO, added postpelleting. Six dietary treatments consisted of two lev- 5 Brumm Swine Consultancy, Inc., Mankato, MN, els of DDGS (0 and 30%), two particle sizes of DDGS ( and 6 Nutreco Canada Agresearch, Burford, ON, Canada. m), and two particle sizes of SBM ( and m). All diets were steam conditioned with the same retention time and The purpose of this meta-analysis was to summarize the effects a temperature of 82C. A by mm pellet die was used of 0 vs. 15 ppm of narasin (NAR; Skycis, Elanco Animal during pelleting. Each diet was replicated 4 times. Data were Health, Greenfield, IN; 4 studies located in Arkansas [AR], analyzed using PROC GLM in SAS. Batch was the experimen- Ontario, CA [ON], Missouri [MO], and Minnesota) and the tal unit. Models for pellet durability index (PDI) and modified effects of 0 or 15 ppm NAR or 11 ppm of virginiamycin (VIR; PDI included fixed effects of diet and time of day. Contrasts Stafac, Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ; 2 studies locat- were used to evaluate DDGS inclusion and regrinding DDGS ed in AR and ON) on the growth and harvest performance of and SBM on pellet quality. Across all diets, average PDI and pigs during the growfinish period. Pigs were blocked by gen- modified PDI was (SD = ) and (SD = ), re- der and weight and then treatments were randomly assigned spectively. Diets containing DDGS had greater (P < ) PDI to pens. Diet treatments consisted of a sequence of three to six and modified PDI in comparison to diets without DDGS ( diets containing corn, SBM, and DDGS (except ON and MO) and %, respectively). Regrinding DDGS had no effect (P > with the appropriate amount of antimicrobial premix added. ) on PDI or modified PDI. Regrinding SBM in diets without Pigs were weighed to determine initial BW, phase weights, DDGS tended (P ) to improve PDI and modified PDI ( and ADG. Feed issuance and weigh backs were recorded to and %, respectively). Within DDGS diets, regrinding SBM determine ADFI and G:F. When pigs reached harvest BW, did not improve (P = ) PDI but improved (P ) modi- they were transported to food companies to measure HCW, fied PDI by %. Across all diets, regrinding SBM improved fat depth, and loin depth. From to kg, pigs fed di- (P < ) both PDI and modified PDI ( and %, respec- ets containing NAR had a faster ADG ( vs. kg/d; tively). Batches pelleted in the morning had greater (P < ) P = ) and a higher G:F ( vs. ; P = ) PDI and modified PDI in comparison to those pelleted in the 23

31 afternoon ( and %, respectively). Results suggest adding 30% DDGS to cornsoy diets improves PDI when the level of Effects of suckling history of mammary glands on added fat in the mixer is controlled and that regrinding SBM but teat order and growth of nursing piglets during a not DDGS improves pellet quality. subsequent lactation. J. Guo1,*, G. Voilque1, Y. Sun1, Key Words: DDGS, particle size, pellet quality, A. E. DeDecker2, M. T. Coffey2, S. W. Kim1, 1North regrinding, soybean meal Carolina State University, Raleigh, 2Murphy-Brown LLC, Rose Hill, NC. The suckling history of a mammary gland, suckled or not The effect of cross-fostering on PRRS transmission suckled, has a significant impact on that glands subsequent and litter performance. B. Mason1,*, A. E. DeDeck- lactation performance. Litters of 57 first parity sows were er2, J. L. Seate3, M. F. Billing3, 1University of Illinois, used to determine the effects of suckling history on teat order Champaign, 2Murphy-Brown LLC, Rose Hill, NC, and piglet growth during a subsequent lactation. In parity 1, 3 Murphy Brown LLC, Rose Hill, NC. sows nursed either 10 or 13 piglets. Sows successfully rebred Cross-fostering is used in swine production to improve growth were used in parity 2, during which litter size was set to 10 performance and reduce mortality; however, it is unknown how piglets, and all piglets were weaned at d 21 of lactation. In much cross-fostering transfers PRRS. Therefore, the objective both parities, teat order of all sows was observed lively at least of this trial is to determine the effects of cross-fostering pro- 3 times during wk 2 and 3 of lactation. Piglet weights were grams on transmission of PRRS, piglet growth, and prewean measured at birth and weaning (d 21) in both parities. Results mortality (PWM). On a commercial sow herd, multiparous showed piglet weight gain was greater (P < ) from sows (15) sows, 10 wk post-LVI from an acute PRRS break, were in parity 2 ( g/d) than in parity 1 ( g/d), indicating that used. Four cross-fostering treatments were applied before far- milk production of sows increased from parity 1 to 2. Teat rowing: A) no movement of piglets, B) movement at 24 h, C) order and teat preference were not affected by litter sizes (10 movement at 5 d, and D) movement at 10 d. Litters were as- vs. 13) in parity 1. Piglets that suckled smith micro moho pro 13 crack anterior 5 pairs signed a treatment at birth and randomized throughout the room of mammary glands were more (P < ) than others ( and the litter received no new piglets. Corresponding to treat- vs. % in parity 1; vs. % in parity 2) showing ment, the 4 heaviest pigs were moved (excluding treatment A). their preference of mammary glands by location. In addition, Litters that received the fostered pigs farrowed on the same day, piglets that suckled the anterior 5 pairs of mammary glands same room, and same treatment. Eight tagged pigs/litter were had greater (P < ) ADG than those that suckled posterior tested for PRRS by PCR at birth and weaning. Litter birth and 3 pairs of mammary glands ( vs. g/d in parity 1; and wean weights were recorded. Performance data were analyzed vs. g/d in parity 2). The utilization rate of mammary using Proc GLM by SPSS with litter as the experimental unit glands in parity 2 with suckling history in parity 1 was more and PRRS transmission data was analyzed using Proc GLIM- (P < ) than those without suckling history in parity 1 (86 MIX in SAS with piglet as the experimental unit. Cross-foster- vs. %), indicating that piglets preferred mammary glands ing pigs at 10 d of age produced an elevation in the prevalence with previous suckling history. However, ADG of piglets in of PRRS, with an increase of % in positive pigs at weaning parity 2 was not affected by suckling history during parity 1. (P < ). Other treatments showed no significant difference in Collectively, this study indicates that piglets preferred mam- PRRS transmission (P > ; Table 1). There was no difference mary glands with previous suckling history even though milk between treatments in ADG and PWM (P > ). Cross-foster- production was not affected by suckling history. Piglets also ing at 10 d of age at 10 wk following LVI enhanced the spread preferred the anterior 5 pairs of mammary glands, which pro- of PRRS. Results confirm restricted cross-fostering programs duced more milk than others. should be implemented to reduce PRRS transmission even after Key Words: litter size, mammary glands, pigs, suckling 10 wk post-PRRS intervention. history, teat order Key Words: cross-fostering, prewean mortality, PRRS transmission Can animal welfare assessment at the farm be a Table Effect of cross-fostering programs on PRRS transmission good tool to control pork quality variation? L. M. Cross-foster treatment Rocha1, 2,*, A. Dalmau3, A. Velarde3, L. Saucier2, L. Values None 24 h 5d 10 d SE P-value Faucitano1, 2, 1Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, Sher- Pigs blood tested brooke, QC, Canada, 2Universit Laval, Quebec, QC, PRRS positive at birth, % Canada, 3IRTA, Animal Welfare Group, Monells, Spain. PRRS positive at wean, % b b b a < Increased PRRS positive*, % b b,c c a < The objective of this study was to assess the relationship be- tween criteria of the Welfare Quality protocol on farm (WQ) ac within a row differ indicate P < * The mean represented as Increased PRRS Positive was generated by (PRRS posi- and their relationship with pork quality variation. A total of tive at weaning PRRS positive at birth = Increased PRRS positive) animals were assessed according to the 12 criteria of the 24

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