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Active Password Changer v8.0 Crack, License Key [Portable ISO Full]

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Active Password Changer 2019 Crack is worked to recover the passwords and username in the attributes of the Windows. The foremost features of the application to reset the local administrator password.

Active Password Changer v8.0 Crack

Active Password Changer v8.0 Crack is intended for resetting native directors associated users passwords on Windows software system just in case an Administrator’s password is forgotten or lost. You don’t must re-install and re-configure the software system to log into Windows. With [email protected] positive identification Changer you’ll log in as an Administrator or a selected user with a blank password.
[email protected] positive identification Changer additionally provides the power to manage with throughout that days and times of the week that the user account is permissible to go surfing to the pc, that is beneficial for preventing the work on for account you decide on (or take away that sort of prohibition).

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Active Password Changer v8.0 Serial Key provides the power to settle on surface-to-air missile before to start out the password recovery method. there’s obtainable the list of the native users. you’ll set numerous security restrictions settings like incapacity of account, login hours, ne’er expiration of passwords and lots of a lot of. it’s terribly straightforward to use the software system because it has easy software. once you put in you open the interface and apply settings per your want. Once you activate it mechanically updates moreover as notifies concerning the update. it’s multiple supports that embody WMI support, windows scripting, mass storage devices and for a lot of.it additionally supports GPT disk partitioning vogue. it’s the power to discover moreover as show the Microsoft security databases.

Active Password Changer License Key

Special Features Of Active Password Changer 2019 Keygen

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  • Detects and displays all Microsoft Security Databases (SAM)
  • Displays all native users
  • Displays full account info for any native user
  • Resets administrator’s/user’s positive identification
  • Resets “User is Disabled” flag
  • Disable Force revolving credit Login
  • will run from bootable floppy, CD or USB Flash
  • Windows Bootable Disk Creator permits to make bootable disks in several formats – CD/DVD/Blu-ray, USB-flash or just associate ISO image
  • Ability to vary (set or clear) user’s account flags: “User should change positive identification at next logon”, “Password ne’er expires”, “Account is disabled”, “Account is fast out”
  • Ability to manage logon time (Permitted logon hours) for a neighborhood user
  • Supports FAT16, FAT32, exFAT, NTFS, NTFS5 file systems
  • Supports massive hard disc drives (greater than 2TB)
  • Supports IDE SATA eSATA USB SSD interface disks and RAIDs
  • previous operations systems supported: DOS version for Microsoft disk operating system, PC-DOS, DR-DOS, FreeDOS, OpenDOS and Windows version for Windows ninety-five/ninety-eight/ American state and also Check CrossOver Cracked.
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Cracking Method Of Active Password Changer v8.0

  1. Click on download
  2. Install the setup
  3. Run the exe file
  4. Copy the product key from this platform and paste on setup box
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Источник: https://belchaa.com/active-password-changer-v8-0-crack/

Windows Password Recovery Tool Ultimate 7.2.2.6 Crack + Activation Key Free Download 2021

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Windows Password Recovery Tool Ultimate 7.2.2.6 Crack is an easy-to-use tool designed to reset almost all Windows operating systems (such as Windows 10, 8.1, Windows 8, Windows 7 (32/64 bit), Windows Vista (32/64 bit), Windows XP, 2000, NT, Windows Server 2012 (R2) / 2008 (R2) / 2003 (R2). Windows Ultimate Password Recovery tool allows you to reset or remove your password without having to reset or lock it through the system. The tool is easy to use and can quickly get you back in the system. Download free useful software Advanced SystemCare Ultimate.

In Windows Password Recovery Tool Ultimate Crack you can run into many situations, in which case you may need a password utility to help you access your computer. You may not have a password reset disk, or you forgot your Windows 8 administrator password and may not have another administrator account. Or you may have changed your login password. But, unfortunately, I lost or I don’t remember. Whatever the reason, Windows Password Recovery Tool Ultimate is a great tool that can recover a lot of essential data. You should be able to recover Windows passwords for any laptop or desktop computer. This is another super software AVG Ultimate.

Windows Password Recovery Tool Ultimate Activation Key is a complex and comprehensive application that is worth using when you need to recover Windows passwords without reinstalling your system. The application has a very practical and simple interface, where you can create a bootable CD or DVD, just select the partition to reset the administrator password and other user account passwords. After that, you need to select the user account for which you want to reset the password and then recover the password for the current account.

Overview Of Windows Password Recovery Tool Ultimate Crack:

Windows Password Recovery Tool Ultimate Free Download With Crack not only recovers forgotten Windows passwords. It also allows you to remove passwords and accounts for local administrators and other users. If some of your colleagues have changed your computer password, you can easily use the Windows password recovery tool to recover your password and create a new local administrator account. Therefore, whether you want to recover a forgotten password or create a new administrator account, it is worth trying the Windows password recovery tool. There is no need to call professional specialists, there is no need to reformat partitions or reinstall the system. You also like this PDF Candy Desktop.

You can easily reset all Windows Password Recovery Tool Ultimate Free and change Windows passwords at home by creating another file. Compared to the Windows operating system, gadget password reset has only three compatibilities, so the operation is fast and safe. Use a CD / DVD / USB tape drive to continue recording efficiently. It is suitable for Windows operating system versions such as Windows 2000 XP Vista 7 8 8.1 and Windows 10.  Who left you or broke your mysterious key? Otherwise, you won’t be using keyword framing technology? Please check this fantastic software FlashBoot 3.3g.

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Windows Password Recovery Tool Ultimate Download can also recover SCSI, RAI, or IDE drive passwords. Allows you to select the correct WinPE version for your local drive and add the WinPE driver so the application can recognize the drive. When the disk or USB stick is ready, you need to restart the locked computer and boot from the device, and then Windows Password Recovery Tool Ultimate will allow you to reset your password, delete the administrator account, or create a new account for any version. Windows XP. Windows: installed on the computer. It also supports Microsoft accounts.

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Windows Password Recovery Tool Ultimate Crack‘s wizard-style approach makes it very easy to use. If you are a beginner and do not want to deal with complex configuration options, you should choose this model. “Fast recovery. On the other hand, more advanced users will be happy to learn about the advanced recovery wizard, which allows them to select the Windows version on the target PC and select bootable media with different options to create an ISO image along with the bootable media. You Can Download this best software also 4uKey iTunes Backup.

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Features:

  • 100% refund
  • A convenient and intuitive user interface is easy to install and use.
  • Use a bootable CD / DVD to reset your password.
  • Use a bootable USB drive to reset your password.
  • Reset local administrator password
  • Recover the product key from the Windows installation that fails to start.
  • WinPE Recovery CD Generator
  • Automatically detects multiple operating systems installed on your computer.
  • Unlock and activate the user account.
  • Disable the password expiration option.
  • Supports Windows 2000, XP, Vista, 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1, Windows 10.
  • Compatible with all laptops including Lenovo, Toshiba, Dell, IBM, etc.
  • Supports 32-bit and 64-bit Windows.
  • Supports USB WinPE charging disk.
    Add the parameter to the custom version of WinPE and enter it when creating the boot disk.
  • When creating a boot disk, add an option for a special custom driver.
  • Advanced password recovery for Windows 8, Windows 8.1, and Windows 10
  • Create a bootable USB / CD / DVD USB stick.
  • Supports Windows 10 x86
  • Supports Windows 10 x64
  • Learn more about how to reset the password for your Windows Live ID account.
  • Recover your Windows 8 / 8.1 BIOS OEM product key.
  • Start menu on the boot disk
  • Free technical support

Pros:

  • The program can also be used with some laptops.
  • If you pay for the full version, it has USB support.
  • You may be able to restart your old computer.
  • Launching in Windows 10

Cons:

  • You have to pay for the service and it is expensive.
  • It is not always valid, but no refunds will be issued.
  • A boot disk will be created and not working as expected.

What's New?

  • Show all information
  • Simple and safe
  • Suitable for USB
  • Make a backup copy of the SAM registry.
  • Ability to control connection time
  • 100% recoverable and safe
  • Delete or reset the Windows domain administrator/user password.
  • Reset or uninstall Windows next to Administrator, etc.
  • Of course, please specify some frames on the computer.
  • Can display information
  • Sai Crack drawing tool
  • There is a SAM registry backup tool.
  • You can delete and reset the password.
  • It has the ability to manage records by time.
  • It will automatically detect other operating systems.

System Requirments:

  • 512 MB or more of RAM (1028 MB recommended)
  • 800 MHz processor or faster (1 GHz recommended)
  • 20 MB of free space
  • CD-ROM drive DVD-ROM drive
  • NVIDIA G80 + (GT8600 to GTX590)

How to Install?

  • Download the file
  • Install it to your device
  • Follow the installation Process
  • Click Finish to complete the installation
  • Software is ready to use

Windows Password Recovery Tool Ultimate Crack Key:

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Windows Password Recovery Tool Ultimate Activation Key:

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Conclusion:

Windows Password Recovery Tool Ultimate Crack for Windows provides an effective way to deal with login passwords and operating system administrator passwords. Windows Crack Password Recovery Tool can simplify Windows passwords and can bypass all Windows passwords. You can use this password bypass tool in safe mode, and you can use a Windows password reset disk to easily erase the administrator password and user password.

Windows Password Recovery Tool Ultimate Official Link is Here:

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Источник: https://procrackkey.co/windows-password-recovery-tool-ultimate-crack/

Active Password Changer Professional 6 Crack Download

Active Password Changer Professional 6 Crack Download Full Version Free

Active Password Changer Professional 6 Crack Download
Active Password Changer Professional 6 Crack is one of the best software Windows password cracker, which is designed to not only enter a Windows account with a blank password to force you, but also enables you to manage the prohibition of registration (add or remove ban login). Active password changer Professional is compatible with almost every Windows operating system either before, also the last, including Windows NT, 2000, XP, Vista, 7, 8, 10, or Server 2000, 2003, 2008 and 2012 32-bit and and 64 bits. It also allows you to reset passwords, and change the attributes of the disk file systems / NTFS / NTFS5, FAT16 / FAT32
Active Password Changer Professional 6Main Features:
-Recovers passwords from multiple partitions and hard disk drives
-Detects and displays all Microsoft Security Databases (SAM)
-Displays all local users
-Displays full account information for any local user
-Resets administrator’s/user’s password
-Resets “User is Disabled” flag
-Disable Force Smart Card Login
-Can run from bootable floppy, CD or USB Flash
-Windows Bootable Disk Creator Allows to create bootable disks in different format — CD/DVD/Blu-ray, USB-flash or simply an ISO image
-Ability to change (set or clear) user’s account flags: “User must change password at next logon”, “Password never expires”, “Account is disabled”, “Account is locked out”
-Ability to manage logon time (Permitted logon hours) for a local user
-Supports FAT16, FAT32, exFAT, NTFS, NTFS5 file systems
-Supports large hard disk drives (greater than 2TB)
-Supports IDE SATA eSATA SSD & SCSI hard disks
-Old operations systems supported: DOS version for MS-DOS, PC-DOS, DR-DOS, FreeDOS, OpenDOS and Windows version for Windows 95 / 98 / ME
How to install Active Password Changer Professional 6
Download Active Password Changer Professional 6
Disconnect from internet (Most important)
Unpack and install Active@ Password Changer 6
Run the software and register using given key
Enjoy Active Password Changer 6 Pro Full Version
Block the program using a firewall apps.
 

Active Password Changer Professional 6 Crack Download Link

Источник: https://cracksfiles.com/2018/06/active-password-changer-professional-6-crack-download/

Password policy recommendations

As the admin of an organization, you're responsible for setting the password policy for users in your organization. Setting the password policy can be complicated and confusing, and this article provides recommendations to make your organization more secure against password attacks.

To determine how often Microsoft 365 passwords expire in your organization, see Set password expiration policy for Microsoft 365.

For more information about Microsoft 365 passwords, see:

Reset passwords (article)

Set an individual user's password to never expire (article)

Let users reset their own passwords (article)

Resend a user's password - Admin Help (article)

Understanding password recommendations

Good password practices fall into a few broad categories:

  • Resisting common attacks This involves the choice of where users enter passwords (known and trusted devices with good malware detection, validated sites), and the choice of what password to choose (length and uniqueness).

  • Containing successful attacks Containing successful hacker attacks is about limiting exposure to a specific service, or preventing that damage altogether, if a user's password gets stolen. For example, ensuring that a breach of your social networking credentials doesn't make your bank account vulnerable, or not letting a poorly guarded account accept reset links for an important account.

  • Understanding human nature Many valid password practices fail in the face of natural human behaviors. Understanding human nature is critical because research shows that almost every rule you impose on your users will result in a weakening of password quality. Length requirements, special character requirements, and password change requirements all result in normalization of passwords, which makes it easier for attackers to guess or crack passwords.

Password guidelines for administrators

The primary goal of a more secure password system is password diversity. You want your password policy to contain lots of different and hard to guess passwords. Here are a few recommendations for keeping your organization as secure as possible.

  • Maintain an 8-character minimum length requirement

  • Don't require character composition requirements. For example, *&(^%$

  • Don't require mandatory periodic password resets for user accounts

  • Ban common passwords, to keep the most vulnerable passwords out of your system

  • Educate your users to not re-use their organization passwords for non-work related purposes

  • Enforce registration for multi-factor authentication

  • Enable risk-based multi-factor authentication challenges

Password guidance for your users

Here's some password guidance for users in your organization. Make sure to let your users know about these recommendations and enforce the recommended password policies at the organizational level.

  • Don't use a password that is the same or similar to one you use on any other websites

  • Don't use a single word, for example, password, or a commonly-used phrase like Iloveyou

  • Make passwords hard to guess, even by those who know a lot about you, such as the names and birthdays of your friends and family, your favorite bands, and phrases you like to use

Some common approaches and their negative impacts

These are some of the most commonly used password management practices, but research warns us about the negative impacts of them.

Password expiration requirements for users

Password expiration requirements do more harm than good, because these requirements make users select predictable passwords, composed of sequential words and numbers which are closely related to each other. In these cases, the next password can be predicted based on the previous password. Password expiration requirements offer no containment benefits because cyber criminals almost always use credentials as soon as they compromise them. Check out Time to rethink mandatory password changes for more info.

Requiring long passwords

Password length requirements (greater than about 10 characters) can result in user behavior that is predictable and undesirable. For example, users who are required to have a 16-character password may choose repeating patterns like fourfourfourfour or passwordpassword that meet the character length requirement but aren't hard to guess. Additionally, length requirements increase the chances that users will adopt other insecure practices, such as writing their passwords down, re-using them, or storing them unencrypted in their documents. To encourage users to think about a unique password, we recommend keeping a reasonable 8-character minimum length requirement.

Requiring the use of multiple character sets

Password complexity requirements reduce key space and cause users to act in predictable ways, doing more harm than good. Most systems enforce some level of password complexity requirements. For example, passwords need characters from all three of the following categories:

  • uppercase characters

  • lowercase characters

  • non-alphanumeric characters

Most people use similar patterns, for example, a capital letter in the first position, a symbol in the last, and a number in the last 2. Cyber criminals know this, so they run their dictionary attacks using the most common substitutions, "$" for "s", "@" for "a," "1" for "l". Forcing your users to choose a combination of upper, lower, digits, special characters has a negative effect. Some complexity requirements even prevent users from using secure and memorable passwords, and force them into coming up with less secure and less memorable passwords.

Successful Patterns

In contrast, here are some recommendations in encouraging password diversity.

Ban common passwords

The most important password requirement you should put on your users when creating passwords is to ban the use of common passwords to reduce your organization's susceptibility to brute force password attacks. Common user passwords include: abcdefg, password, monkey.

Educate users to not re-use organization passwords anywhere else

One of the most important messages to get across to users in your organization is to not re-use their organization password anywhere else. The use of organization passwords in external websites greatly increases the likelihood that cyber criminals will compromise these passwords.

Enforce Multi-Factor Authentication registration

Make sure your users update contact and security information, like an alternate email address, phone number, or a device registered for push notifications, so they can respond to security challenges and be notified of security events. Updated contact and security information helps users verify their identity if they ever forget their password, or if someone else tries to take over their account. It also provides an out of band notification channel in the case of security events such as login attempts or changed passwords.

To learn more, see Set up multi-factor authentication.

Enable risk-based multi-factor authentication

Risk-based multi-factor authentication ensures that when our system detects suspicious activity, it can challenge the user to ensure that they are the legitimate account owner.

Next steps

Want to know more about managing passwords? Here is some recommended reading:

Related content

Reset passwords (article)
Set an individual user's password to never expire (article)
Let users reset their own passwords (article)
Resend a user's password - Admin Help (article)

Источник: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/microsoft-365/admin/misc/password-policy-recommendations

Posts Tagged ‘crack windows password’

Forgetting Windows password means losing access to important files and settings on your computer. A password hint can provide clues to help you recall your password. But in most situations, we can’t recognize the importance of password hint and leave it as blank when set a new password. How to hack or recover Windows password so you can regain access to your computer?

In this tutorial we’ll show you how to hack Windows password with a Linux live CD – Ophcrack, which is a freeware that can crack Windows password so you can login without making any changes to your computer.

Step 1: Download Ophcrack and Create A Linux Live CD

The first thing we will need to do is download the CD image from Ophcrack’s website. There are two options to download: XP or Vista. So make sure you grab the right one. The Vista download works with Windows Vista or Windows 7, and the only difference between XP and Vista is the “tables” Ophcrack uses to hack the password.

Once the .iso file is downloaded, burn it to a CD using any CD/DVD burning software you like, such as BurnCDCC or ImgBurn. If you are going to be cracking your password on a computer that doesn’t have a CD drive, such as a netbook, you can also burn the ISO image to a USB flash drive using Universal USB Creator.

Step 2: Hack Windows Password

Boot the computer from the Linux Live CD that you created.  On some computers you may have to go into the BIOS settings to change the boot order or push a key to show the boot menu.

Once the disk is done booting, Ophcrack should start automatically and will begin hacking the passwords for all of the users on your computer.

If you have a complex password it will take a lot longer than simple passwords, and with the free tables your password may never be cracked. Once the hack is done you will see the password in plain text, write it down and reboot the machine to login. If your password isn’t hacked, you can also log in as one of the other users with admin rights and then change your password from within Windows.

With the free tables available you will not be able to hack every password, but the paid tables range from $100 to $1000 so you may be better off just resetting your password with Reset Windows Password utility.

Источник: https://www.top-password.com/blog/tag/crack-windows-password/

Password

Used for user authentication to prove identity or access approval

For other uses, see Password (disambiguation).

For assistance with your Wikipedia password, see Help:Reset password.

"Passcode" redirects here. For the Japanese idol group, see Passcode (group).

A password field in a sign in form.

A password, sometimes called a passcode (for example in Apple devices),[1] is secret data, typically a string of characters, usually used to confirm a user's identity.[1] Traditionally, passwords were expected to be memorized, but the large number of password-protected services that a typical individual accesses can make memorization of unique passwords for each service impractical.[2] Using the terminology of the NIST Digital Identity Guidelines,[3] the secret is held by a party called the claimant while the party verifying the identity of the claimant is called the verifier. When the claimant successfully demonstrates knowledge of the password to the verifier through an established authentication protocol,[4] the verifier is able to infer the claimant's identity.

In general, a password is an arbitrary string of characters including letters, digits, or other symbols. If the permissible characters are constrained to be numeric, the corresponding secret is sometimes called a personal identification number (PIN).

Despite its name, a password does not need to be an actual word; indeed, a non-word (in the dictionary sense) may be harder to guess, which is a desirable property of passwords. A memorized secret consisting of a sequence of words or other text separated by spaces is sometimes called a passphrase. A passphrase is similar to a password in usage, but the former is generally longer for added security.[5]

History[edit]

Passwords have been used since ancient times. Sentries would challenge those wishing to enter an area to supply a password or watchword, and would only allow a person or group to pass if they knew the password. Polybius describes the system for the distribution of watchwords in the Roman military as follows:

The way in which they secure the passing round of the watchword for the night is as follows: from the tenth maniple of each class of infantry and cavalry, the maniple which is encamped at the lower end of the street, a man is chosen who is relieved from guard duty, and he attends every day at sunset at the tent of the tribune, and receiving from him the watchword—that is a wooden tablet with the word inscribed on it – takes his leave, and on returning to his quarters passes on the watchword and tablet before witnesses to the commander of the next maniple, who in turn passes it to the one next to him. All do the same until it reaches the first maniples, those encamped near the tents of the tribunes. These latter are obliged to deliver the tablet to the tribunes before dark. So that if all those issued are returned, the tribune knows that the watchword has been given to all the maniples, and has passed through all on its way back to him. If any one of them is missing, he makes inquiry at once, as he knows by the marks from what quarter the tablet has not returned, and whoever is responsible for the stoppage meets with the punishment he merits.[6]

Passwords in military use evolved to include not just a password, but a password and a counterpassword; for example in the opening days of the Battle of Normandy, paratroopers of the U.S. 101st Airborne Division used a password—flash—which was presented as a challenge, and answered with the correct response—thunder. The challenge and response were changed every three days. American paratroopers also famously used a device known as a "cricket" on D-Day in place of a password system as a temporarily unique method of identification; one metallic click given by the device in lieu of a password was to be met by two clicks in reply.[7]

Passwords have been used with computers since the earliest days of computing. The Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS), an operating system introduced at MIT in 1961, was the first computer system to implement password login.[8][9] CTSS had a LOGIN command that requested a user password. "After typing PASSWORD, the system turns off the printing mechanism, if possible, so that the user may type in his password with privacy."[10] In the early 1970s, Robert Morris developed a system of storing login passwords in a hashed form as part of the Unix operating system. The system was based on a simulated Hagelin rotor crypto machine, and first appeared in 6th Edition Unix in 1974. A later version of his algorithm, known as crypt(3), used a 12-bit salt and invoked a modified form of the DES algorithm 25 times to reduce the risk of pre-computed dictionary attacks.[11]

In modern times, user names and passwords are commonly used by people during a log in process that controls access to protected computer operating systems, mobile phones, cable TV decoders, automated teller machines (ATMs), etc. A typical computer user has passwords for many purposes: logging into accounts, retrieving e-mail, accessing applications, databases, networks, web sites, and even reading the morning newspaper online.

Choosing a secure and memorable password[edit]

The easier a password is for the owner to remember generally means it will be easier for an attacker to guess.[12] However, passwords that are difficult to remember may also reduce the security of a system because (a) users might need to write down or electronically store the password, (b) users will need frequent password resets and (c) users are more likely to re-use the same password across different accounts. Similarly, the more stringent the password requirements, such as "have a mix of uppercase and lowercase letters and digits" or "change it monthly", the greater the degree to which users will subvert the system.[13] Others argue longer passwords provide more security (e.g., entropy) than shorter passwords with a wide variety of characters.[14]

In The Memorability and Security of Passwords,[15] Jeff Yan et al. examine the effect of advice given to users about a good choice of password. They found that passwords based on thinking of a phrase and taking the first letter of each word are just as memorable as naively selected passwords, and just as hard to crack as randomly generated passwords.

Combining two or more unrelated words and altering some of the letters to special characters or numbers is another good method,[16] but a single dictionary word is not. Having a personally designed algorithm for generating obscure passwords is another good method.[17]

However, asking users to remember a password consisting of a "mix of uppercase and lowercase characters" is similar to asking them to remember a sequence of bits: hard to remember, and only a little bit harder to crack (e.g. only 128 times harder to crack for 7-letter passwords, less if the user simply capitalises one of the letters). Asking users to use "both letters and digits" will often lead to easy-to-guess substitutions such as 'E' → '3' and 'I' → '1', substitutions that are well known to attackers. Similarly typing the password one keyboard row higher is a common trick known to attackers.[18]

In 2013, Google released a list of the most common password types, all of which are considered insecure because they are too easy to guess (especially after researching an individual on social media):[19]

  • The name of a pet, child, family member, or significant other
  • Anniversary dates and birthdays
  • Birthplace
  • Name of a favorite holiday
  • Something related to a favorite sports team
  • The word "password"

Alternatives to memorization[edit]

Traditional advice to memorize passwords and never write them down has become a challenge because of the sheer number of passwords users of computers and the internet are expected to maintain. One survey concluded that the average user has around 100 passwords.[2] To manage the proliferation of passwords, some users employ the same password for multiple accounts, a dangerous practice since a data breach in one account could compromise the rest. Less risky alternatives include the use of password managers, single sign-on systems and simply keeping paper lists of less critical passwords.[20] Such practices can reduce the number of passwords that must be memorized, such as the password manager's master password, to a more manageable number.

Factors in the security of a password system[edit]

The security of a password-protected system depends on several factors. The overall system must be designed for sound security, with protection against computer viruses, man-in-the-middle attacks and the like. Physical security issues are also a concern, from deterring shoulder surfing to more sophisticated physical threats such as video cameras and keyboard sniffers. Passwords should be chosen so that they are hard for an attacker to guess and hard for an attacker to discover using any of the available automatic attack schemes. See password strength and computer security for more information.[21]

Nowadays, it is a common practice for computer systems to hide passwords as they are typed. The purpose of this measure is to prevent bystanders from reading the password; however, some argue that this practice may lead to mistakes and stress, encouraging users to choose weak passwords. As an alternative, users should have the option to show or hide passwords as they type them.[21]

Effective access control provisions may force extreme measures on criminals seeking to acquire a password or biometric token.[22] Less extreme measures include extortion, rubber hose cryptanalysis, and side channel attack.

Some specific password management issues that must be considered when thinking about, choosing, and handling, a password follow.

Rate at which an attacker can try guessed passwords[edit]

The rate at which an attacker can submit guessed passwords to the system is a key factor in determining system security. Some systems impose a time-out of several seconds after a small number (e.g., three) of failed password entry attempts, also known as throttling.[3]: 63B Sec 5.2.2  In the absence of other vulnerabilities, such systems can be effectively secure with relatively simple passwords if they have been well chosen and are not easily guessed.[23]

Many systems store a cryptographic hash of the password. If an attacker gets access to the file of hashed passwords guessing can be done offline, rapidly testing candidate passwords against the true password's hash value. In the example of a web-server, an online attacker can guess only at the rate at which the server will respond, while an off-line attacker (who gains access to the file) can guess at a rate limited only by the hardware on which the attack is running.

Passwords that are used to generate cryptographic keys (e.g., for disk encryption or Wi-Fi security) can also be subjected to high rate guessing. Lists of common passwords are widely available and can make password attacks very efficient. (See Password cracking.) Security in such situations depends on using passwords or passphrases of adequate complexity, making such an attack computationally infeasible for the attacker. Some systems, such as PGP and Wi-Fi WPA, apply a computation-intensive hash to the password to slow such attacks. See key stretching.

Limits on the number of password guesses[edit]

An alternative to limiting the rate at which an attacker can make guesses on a password is to limit the total number of guesses that can be made. The password can be disabled, requiring a reset, after a small number of consecutive bad guesses (say 5); and the user may be required to change the password after a larger cumulative number of bad guesses (say 30), to prevent an attacker from making an arbitrarily large number of bad guesses by interspersing them between good guesses made by the legitimate password owner.[24] Attackers may conversely use knowledge of this mitigation to implement a denial of service attack against the user by intentionally locking the user out of their own device; this denial of service may open other avenues for the attacker to manipulate the situation to their advantage via social engineering.

Form of stored passwords[edit]

Some computer systems store user passwords as plaintext, against which to compare user logon attempts. If an attacker gains access to such an internal password store, all passwords—and so all user accounts—will be compromised. If some users employ the same password for accounts on different systems, those will be compromised as well.

More secure systems store each password in a cryptographically protected form, so access to the actual password will still be difficult for a snooper who gains internal access to the system, while validation of user access attempts remains possible. The most secure don't store passwords at all, but a one-way derivation, such as a polynomial, modulus, or an advanced hash function.[14]Roger Needham invented the now-common approach of storing only a "hashed" form of the plaintext password.[25][26] When a user types in a password on such a system, the password handling software runs through a cryptographic hash algorithm, and if the hash value generated from the user's entry matches the hash stored in the password database, the user is permitted access. The hash value is created by applying a cryptographic hash function to a string consisting of the submitted password and, in many implementations, another value known as a salt. A salt prevents attackers from easily building a list of hash values for common passwords and prevents password cracking efforts from scaling across all users.[27]MD5 and SHA1 are frequently used cryptographic hash functions, but they are not recommended for password hashing unless they are used as part of a larger construction such as in PBKDF2.[28]

The stored data—sometimes called the "password verifier" or the "password hash"—is often stored in Modular Crypt Format or RFC 2307 hash format, sometimes in the /etc/passwd file or the /etc/shadow file.[29]

The main storage methods for passwords are plain text, hashed, hashed and salted, and reversibly encrypted.[30] If an attacker gains access to the password file, then if it is stored as plain text, no cracking is necessary. If it is hashed but not salted then it is vulnerable to rainbow table attacks (which are more efficient than cracking). If it is reversibly encrypted then if the attacker gets the decryption key along with the file no cracking is necessary, while if he fails to get the key cracking is not possible. Thus, of the common storage formats for passwords only when passwords have been salted and hashed is cracking both necessary and possible.[30]

If a cryptographic hash function is well designed, it is computationally infeasible to reverse the function to recover a plaintext password. An attacker can, however, use widely available tools to attempt to guess the passwords. These tools work by hashing possible passwords and comparing the result of each guess to the actual password hashes. If the attacker finds a match, they know that their guess is the actual password for the associated user. Password cracking tools can operate by brute force (i.e. trying every possible combination of characters) or by hashing every word from a list; large lists of possible passwords in many languages are widely available on the Internet.[14] The existence of password cracking tools allows attackers to easily recover poorly chosen passwords. In particular, attackers can quickly recover passwords that are short, dictionary words, simple variations on dictionary words, or that use easily guessable patterns.[31] A modified version of the DES algorithm was used as the basis for the password hashing algorithm in early Unix systems.[32] The crypt algorithm used a 12-bit salt value so that each user's hash was unique and iterated the DES algorithm 25 times in order to make the hash function slower, both measures intended to frustrate automated guessing attacks.[32] The user's password was used as a key to encrypt a fixed value. More recent Unix or Unix-like systems (e.g., Linux or the various BSD systems) use more secure password hashing algorithms such as PBKDF2, bcrypt, and scrypt, which have large salts and an adjustable cost or number of iterations.[33] A poorly designed hash function can make attacks feasible even if a strong password is chosen. See LM hash for a widely deployed and insecure example.[34]

Methods of verifying a password over a network[edit]

Simple transmission of the password[edit]

Passwords are vulnerable to interception (i.e., "snooping") while being transmitted to the authenticating machine or person. If the password is carried as electrical signals on unsecured physical wiring between the user access point and the central system controlling the password database, it is subject to snooping by wiretapping methods. If it is carried as packeted data over the Internet, anyone able to watch the packets containing the logon information can snoop with a very low probability of detection.

Email is sometimes used to distribute passwords but this is generally an insecure method. Since most email is sent as plaintext, a message containing a password is readable without effort during transport by any eavesdropper. Further, the message will be stored as plaintext on at least two computers: the sender's and the recipient's. If it passes through intermediate systems during its travels, it will probably be stored on there as well, at least for some time, and may be copied to backup, cache or history files on any of these systems.

Using client-side encryption will only protect transmission from the mail handling system server to the client machine. Previous or subsequent relays of the email will not be protected and the email will probably be stored on multiple computers, certainly on the originating and receiving computers, most often in clear text.

Transmission through encrypted channels[edit]

The risk of interception of passwords sent over the Internet can be reduced by, among other approaches, using cryptographic protection. The most widely used is the Transport Layer Security (TLS, previously called SSL) feature built into most current Internet browsers. Most browsers alert the user of a TLS/SSL-protected exchange with a server by displaying a closed lock icon, or some other sign, when TLS is in use. There are several other techniques in use; see cryptography.

Hash-based challenge–response methods[edit]

Unfortunately, there is a conflict between stored hashed-passwords and hash-based challenge–response authentication; the latter requires a client to prove to a server that they know what the shared secret (i.e., password) is, and to do this, the server must be able to obtain the shared secret from its stored form. On many systems (including Unix-type systems) doing remote authentication, the shared secret usually becomes the hashed form and has the serious limitation of exposing passwords to offline guessing attacks. In addition, when the hash is used as a shared secret, an attacker does not need the original password to authenticate remotely; they only need the hash.

Zero-knowledge password proofs[edit]

Rather than transmitting a password, or transmitting the hash of the password, password-authenticated key agreement systems can perform a zero-knowledge password proof, which proves knowledge of the password without exposing it.

Moving a step further, augmented systems for password-authenticated key agreement (e.g., AMP, B-SPEKE, PAK-Z, SRP-6) avoid both the conflict and limitation of hash-based methods. An augmented system allows a client to prove knowledge of the password to a server, where the server knows only a (not exactly) hashed password, and where the unhashed password is required to gain access.

Procedures for changing passwords[edit]

Usually, a system must provide a way to change a password, either because a user believes the current password has been (or might have been) compromised, or as a precautionary measure. If a new password is passed to the system in unencrypted form, security can be lost (e.g., via wiretapping) before the new password can even be installed in the password database and if the new password is given to a compromised employee, little is gained. Some websites include the user-selected password in an unencrypted confirmation e-mail message, with the obvious increased vulnerability.

Identity management systems are increasingly used to automate the issuance of replacements for lost passwords, a feature called self service password reset. The user's identity is verified by asking questions and comparing the answers to ones previously stored (i.e., when the account was opened).

Some password reset questions ask for personal information that could be found on social media, such as mother's maiden name. As a result, some security experts recommend either making up one's own questions or giving false answers.[35]

Password longevity[edit]

"Password aging" is a feature of some operating systems which forces users to change passwords frequently (e.g., quarterly, monthly or even more often). Such policies usually provoke user protest and foot-dragging at best and hostility at worst. There is often an increase in the number of people who note down the password and leave it where it can easily be found, as well as help desk calls to reset a forgotten password. Users may use simpler passwords or develop variation patterns on a consistent theme to keep their passwords memorable.[36] Because of these issues, there is some debate as to whether password aging is effective.[37] Changing a password will not prevent abuse in most cases, since the abuse would often be immediately noticeable. However, if someone may have had access to the password through some means, such as sharing a computer or breaching a different site, changing the password limits the window for abuse.[38]

Number of users per password[edit]

Allotting separate passwords to each user of a system is preferable to having a single password shared by legitimate users of the system, certainly from a security viewpoint. This is partly because users are more willing to tell another person (who may not be authorized) a shared password than one exclusively for their use.[citation needed] Single passwords are also much less convenient to change because many people need to be told at the same time, and they make removal of a particular user's access more difficult, as for instance on graduation or resignation. Separate logins are also often used for accountability, for example to know who changed a piece of data.

Password security architecture[edit]

Common techniques used to improve the security of computer systems protected by a password include:

  • Not displaying the password on the display screen as it is being entered or obscuring it as it is typed by using asterisks (*) or bullets (•).
  • Allowing passwords of adequate length. (Some legacy operating systems, including early versions[which?] of Unix and Windows, limited passwords to an 8 character maximum,[39][40][41] reducing security.)
  • Requiring users to re-enter their password after a period of inactivity (a semi log-off policy).
  • Enforcing a password policy to increase password strength and security.
    • Assigning randomly chosen passwords.
    • Requiring minimum password lengths.[28]
    • Some systems require characters from various character classes in a password—for example, "must have at least one uppercase and at least one lowercase letter". However, all-lowercase passwords are more secure per keystroke than mixed capitalization passwords.[42]
    • Employ a password blacklist to block the use of weak, easily guessed passwords
    • Providing an alternative to keyboard entry (e.g., spoken passwords, or biometric identifiers).
    • Requiring more than one authentication system, such as two-factor authentication (something a user has and something the user knows).
  • Using encrypted tunnels or password-authenticated key agreement to prevent access to transmitted passwords via network attacks
  • Limiting the number of allowed failures within a given time period (to prevent repeated password guessing). After the limit is reached, further attempts will fail (including correct password attempts) until the beginning of the next time period. However, this is vulnerable to a form of denial of service attack.
  • Introducing a delay between password submission attempts to slow down automated password guessing programs.

Some of the more stringent policy enforcement measures can pose a risk of alienating users, possibly decreasing security as a result.

Password reuse[edit]

It is common practice amongst computer users to reuse the same password on multiple sites. This presents a substantial security risk, because an attacker needs to only compromise a single site in order to gain access to other sites the victim uses. This problem is exacerbated by also reusing usernames, and by websites requiring email logins, as it makes it easier for an attacker to track a single user across multiple sites. Password reuse can be avoided or minimised by using mnemonic techniques, writing passwords down on paper, or using a password manager.[43]

It has been argued by Redmond researchers Dinei Florencio and Cormac Herley, together with Paul C. van Oorschot of Carleton University, Canada, that password reuse is inevitable, and that users should reuse passwords for low-security websites (which contain little personal data and no financial information, for example) and instead focus their efforts on remembering long, complex passwords for a few important accounts, such as bank accounts.[44] Similar arguments were made by Forbes in not change passwords as often as many "experts" advise, due to the same limitations in human memory.[36]

Writing down passwords on paper[edit]

Historically, many security experts asked people to memorize their passwords: "Never write down a password". More recently, many security experts such as Bruce Schneier recommend that people use passwords that are too complicated to memorize, write them down on paper, and keep them in a wallet.[45][46][47][48][49][50][51]

Password manager software can also store passwords relatively safely, in an encrypted file sealed with a single master password.

After death[edit]

According to a survey by the University of London, one in ten people are now leaving their passwords in their wills to pass on this important information when they die. One-third of people, according to the poll, agree that their password-protected data is important enough to pass on in their will.[52]

Multi-factor authentication[edit]

Main article: Multi-factor authentication

Multi-factor authentication schemes combine passwords (as "knowledge factors") with one or more other means of authentication, to make authentication more secure and less vulnerable to compromised passwords. For example, a simple two-factor login might send a text message, e-mail, automated phone call, or similar alert whenever a login attempt is made, possibly supplying a code that must be entered in addition to a password.[53] More sophisticated factors include such things as hardware tokens and biometric security.

Password rules[edit]

Further information: Password policy

Most organizations specify a password policy that sets requirements for the composition and usage of passwords, typically dictating minimum length, required categories (e.g., upper and lower case, numbers, and special characters), prohibited elements (e.g., use of one's own name, date of birth, address, telephone number). Some governments have national authentication frameworks[54] that define requirements for user authentication to government services, including requirements for passwords.

Many websites enforce standard rules such as minimum and maximum length, but also frequently include composition rules such as featuring at least one capital letter and at least one number/symbol. These latter, more specific rules were largely based on a 2003 report by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), authored by Bill Burr.[55] It originally proposed the practice of using numbers, obscure characters and capital letters and updating regularly. In a 2017 Wall Street Journal article, Burr reported he regrets these proposals and made a mistake when he recommended them.[56]

According to a 2017 rewrite of this NIST report, many websites have rules that actually have the opposite effect on the security of their users. This includes complex composition rules as well as forced password changes after certain periods of time. While these rules have long been widespread, they have also long been seen as annoying and ineffective by both users and cyber-security experts.[57] The NIST recommends people use longer phrases as passwords (and advises websites to raise the maximum password length) instead of hard-to-remember passwords with "illusory complexity" such as "pA55w+rd".[58] A user prevented from using the password "password" may simply choose "Password1" if required to include a number and uppercase letter. Combined with forced periodic password changes, this can lead to passwords that are difficult to remember but easy to crack.[55]

Paul Grassi, one of the 2017 NIST report's authors, further elaborated: "Everyone knows that an exclamation point is a 1, or an I, or the last character of a password. $ is an S or a 5. If we use these well-known tricks, we aren’t fooling any adversary. We are simply fooling the database that stores passwords into thinking the user did something good."[57]

Pieris Tsokkis and Eliana Stavrou were able to identify some bad password construction strategies through their research and development of a password generator tool. They came up with eight categories of password construction strategies based on exposed password lists, password cracking tools, and online reports citing the most used passwords. These categories include user-related information, keyboard combinations and patterns, placement strategy, word processing, substitution, capitalization, append dates, and a combination of the previous categories[59]

Password cracking[edit]

Main article: Password cracking

Attempting to crack passwords by trying as many possibilities as time and money permit is a brute force attack. A related method, rather more efficient in most cases, is a dictionary attack. In a dictionary attack, all words in one or more dictionaries are tested. Lists of common passwords are also typically tested.

Password strength is the likelihood that a password cannot be guessed or discovered, and varies with the attack algorithm used. Cryptologists and computer scientists often refer to the strength or 'hardness' in terms of entropy.[14]

Passwords easily discovered are termed weak or vulnerable; passwords very difficult or impossible to discover are considered strong. There are several programs available for password attack (or even auditing and recovery by systems personnel) such as L0phtCrack, John the Ripper, and Cain; some of which use password design vulnerabilities (as found in the Microsoft LANManager system) to increase efficiency. These programs are sometimes used by system administrators to detect weak passwords proposed by users.

Studies of production computer systems have consistently shown that a large fraction of all user-chosen passwords are readily guessed automatically. For example, Columbia University found 22% of user passwords could be recovered with little effort.[60] According to Bruce Schneier, examining data from a 2006 phishing attack, 55% of MySpace passwords would be crackable in 8 hours using a commercially available Password Recovery Toolkit capable of testing 200,000 passwords per second in 2006.[61] He also reported that the single most common password was password1, confirming yet again the general lack of informed care in choosing passwords among users. (He nevertheless maintained, based on these data, that the general quality of passwords has improved over the years—for example, average length was up to eight characters from under seven in previous surveys, and less than 4% were dictionary words.[62])

Incidents[edit]

  • On July 16, 1998, CERT reported an incident where an attacker had found 186,126 encrypted passwords. At the time the attacker was discovered, 47,642 passwords had already been cracked.[63]
  • In September, 2001, after the deaths of 960 New York employees in the September 11 attacks, financial services firm Cantor Fitzgerald through Microsoft broke the passwords of deceased employees to gain access to files needed for servicing client accounts.[64] Technicians used brute-force attacks, and interviewers contacted families to gather personalized information that might reduce the search time for weaker passwords.[64]
  • In December 2009, a major password breach of the Rockyou.com website occurred that led to the release of 32 million passwords. The hacker then leaked the full list of the 32 million passwords (with no other identifiable information) to the Internet. Passwords were stored in cleartext in the database and were extracted through a SQL injection vulnerability. The Imperva Application Defense Center (ADC) did an analysis on the strength of the passwords.[65]
  • In June 2011, NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) experienced a security breach that led to the public release of first and last names, usernames, and passwords for more than 11,000 registered users of their e-bookshop. The data was leaked as part of Operation AntiSec, a movement that includes Anonymous, LulzSec, as well as other hacking groups and individuals. The aim of AntiSec is to expose personal, sensitive, and restricted information to the world, using any means necessary.[66]
  • On July 11, 2011, Booz Allen Hamilton, a consulting firm that does work for the Pentagon, had their servers hacked by Anonymous and leaked the same day. "The leak, dubbed 'Military Meltdown Monday,' includes 90,000 logins of military personnel—including personnel from USCENTCOM, SOCOM, the Marine corps, various Air Force facilities, Homeland Security, State Department staff, and what looks like private sector contractors."[67] These leaked passwords wound up being hashed in SHA1, and were later decrypted and analyzed by the ADC team at Imperva, revealing that even military personnel look for shortcuts and ways around the password requirements.[68]

Alternatives to passwords for authentication[edit]

The numerous ways in which permanent or semi-permanent passwords can be compromised has prompted the development of other techniques. Unfortunately, some are inadequate in practice, and in any case few have become universally available for users seeking a more secure alternative.[citation needed] A 2012 paper[69] examines why passwords have proved so hard to supplant (despite numerous predictions that they would soon be a thing of the past[70]); in examining thirty representative proposed replacements with respect to security, usability and deployability they conclude "none even retains the full set of benefits that legacy passwords already provide."

  • Single-use passwords. Having passwords that are only valid once makes many potential attacks ineffective. Most users find single-use passwords extremely inconvenient. They have, however, been widely implemented in personal online banking, where they are known as Transaction Authentication Numbers (TANs). As most home users only perform a small number of transactions each week, the single-use issue has not led to intolerable customer dissatisfaction in this case.
  • Time-synchronized one-time passwords are similar in some ways to single-use passwords, but the value to be entered is displayed on a small (generally pocketable) item and changes every minute or so.
  • PassWindow one-time passwords are used as single-use passwords, but the dynamic characters to be entered are visible only when a user superimposes a unique printed visual key over a server-generated challenge image shown on the user's screen.
  • Access controls based on public-key cryptography e.g. ssh. The necessary keys are usually too large to memorize (but see proposal Passmaze)[71] and must be stored on a local computer, security token or portable memory device, such as a USB flash drive or even floppy disk. The private key may be stored on a cloud service provider, and activated by the use of a password or two-factor authentication.
  • Biometric methods promise authentication based on unalterable personal characteristics, but currently (2008) have high error rates and require additional hardware to scan,[needs update] for example, fingerprints, irises, etc. They have proven easy to spoof in some famous incidents testing commercially available systems, for example, the gummie fingerprint spoof demonstration,[72] and, because these characteristics are unalterable, they cannot be changed if compromised; this is a highly important consideration in access control as a compromised access token is necessarily insecure.
  • Single sign-on technology is claimed to eliminate the need for having multiple passwords. Such schemes do not relieve users and administrators from choosing reasonable single passwords, nor system designers or administrators from ensuring that private access control information passed among systems enabling single sign-on is secure against attack. As yet, no satisfactory standard has been developed.
  • Envaulting technology is a password-free way to secure data on removable storage devices such as USB flash drives. Instead of user passwords, access control is based on the user's access to a network resource.
  • Non-text-based passwords, such as graphical passwords or mouse-movement based passwords.[73] Graphical passwords are an alternative means of authentication for log-in intended to be used in place of conventional password; they use images, graphics or colours instead of letters, digits or special characters. One system requires users to select a series of faces as a password, utilizing the human brain's ability to recall faces easily.[74] In some implementations the user is required to pick from a series of images in the correct sequence in order to gain access.[75] Another graphical password solution creates a one-time password using a randomly generated grid of images. Each time the user is required to authenticate, they look for the images that fit their pre-chosen categories and enter the randomly generated alphanumeric character that appears in the image to form the one-time password.[76][77] So far, graphical passwords are promising, but are not widely used. Studies on this subject have been made to determine its usability in the real world. While some believe that graphical passwords would be harder to crack, others suggest that people will be just as likely to pick common images or sequences as they are to pick common passwords.[citation needed]
  • 2D Key (2-Dimensional Key)[78] is a 2D matrix-like key input method having the key styles of multiline passphrase, crossword, ASCII/Unicode art, with optional textual semantic noises, to create big password/key beyond 128 bits to realize the MePKC (Memorizable Public-Key Cryptography)[79] using fully memorizable private key upon the current private key management technologies like encrypted private key, split private key, and roaming private key.
  • Cognitive passwords use question and answer cue/response pairs to verify identity.

"The password is dead"[edit]

That "the password is dead" is a recurring idea in computer security. The reasons given often include reference to the usability as well as security problems of passwords. It often accompanies arguments that the replacement of passwords by a more secure means of authentication is both necessary and imminent. This claim has been made by numerous people at least since 2004.[70][80][81][82][83][84][85][86]

Alternatives to passwords include biometrics, two-factor authentication or single sign-on, Microsoft's Cardspace, the Higgins project, the Liberty Alliance, NSTIC, the FIDO Alliance and various Identity 2.0 proposals.[87][88]

However, in spite of these predictions and efforts to replace them passwords are still the dominant form of authentication on the web. In "The Persistence of Passwords," Cormac Herley and Paul van Oorschot suggest that every effort should be made to end the "spectacularly incorrect assumption" that passwords are dead.[89] They argue that "no other single technology matches their combination of cost, immediacy and convenience" and that "passwords are themselves the best fit for many of the scenarios in which they are currently used."

Following this, Bonneau et al. systematically compared web passwords to 35 competing authentication schemes in terms of their usability, deployability, and security.[90][91] Their analysis shows that most schemes do better than passwords on security, some schemes do better and some worse with respect to usability, while every scheme does worse than passwords on deployability. The authors conclude with the following observation: "Marginal gains are often not sufficient to reach the activation energy necessary to overcome significant transition costs, which may provide the best explanation of why we are likely to live considerably longer before seeing the funeral procession for passwords arrive at the cemetery."

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  38. ^Schneier on Security discussion on changing passwordsArchived 2010-12-30 at the Wayback Machine. Schneier.com. Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  39. ^Seltzer, Larry. (2010-02-09) "American Express: Strong Credit, Weak Passwords"Archived 2017-07-12 at the Wayback Machine. Pcmag.com. Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  40. ^"Ten Windows Password Myths"Archived 2016-01-28 at the Wayback Machine: "NT dialog boxes ... limited passwords to a maximum of 14 characters"
  41. ^"You must provide a password between 1 and 8 characters in length". Jira.codehaus.org. Retrieved on 2012-05-20. Archived May 21, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  42. ^"To Capitalize or Not to Capitalize?"Archived 2009-02-17 at the Wayback Machine. World.std.com. Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  43. ^Thomas, Keir (February 10, 2011). "Password Reuse Is All Too Common, Research Shows". PC World. Archived from the original on August 12, 2014. Retrieved August 10, 2014.
  44. ^Pauli, Darren (16 July 2014). "Microsoft: You NEED bad passwords and should re-use them a lot". The Register. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
  45. ^Bruce Schneier : Crypto-Gram NewsletterArchived 2011-11-15 at the Wayback Machine May 15, 2001
  46. ^"Ten Windows Password Myths"Archived 2016-01-28 at the Wayback Machine: Myth #7. You Should Never Write Down Your Password
  47. ^Kotadia, Munir (2005-05-23) Microsoft security guru: Jot down your passwords. News.cnet.com. Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  48. ^"The Strong Password Dilemma"Archived 2010-07-18 at the Wayback Machine by Richard E. Smith: "we can summarize classical password selection rules as follows: The password must be impossible to remember and never written down."
  49. ^Bob Jenkins (2013-01-11). "Choosing Random Passwords". Archived from the original on 2010-09-18.
  50. ^"The Memorability and Security of Passwords – Some Empirical Results"Archived 2011-02-19 at the Wayback Machine (pdf)
    "your password ... in a secure place, such as the back of your wallet or purse."
  51. ^"Should I write down my passphrase?"Archived 2009-02-17 at the Wayback Machine. World.std.com. Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  52. ^Jaffery, Saman M. (17 October 2011). "Survey: 11% of Brits Include Internet Passwords in Will". Hull & Hull LLP. Archived from the original on 25 December 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  53. ^Two-factor authenticationArchived 2016-06-18 at the Wayback Machine
  54. ^Improving Usability of Password Management with Standardized Password PoliciesArchived 2013-06-20 at the Wayback Machine (pdf). Retrieved on 2012-10-12.
  55. ^ abHate silly password rules? So does the guy who created them, ZDNet
  56. ^The Man Who Wrote Those Password Rules Has a New Tip: N3v$r M1^d!, Wall Street Journal
  57. ^ abExperts Say We Can Finally Ditch Those Stupid Password Rules, Fortune
  58. ^NIST’s new password rules – what you need to know, Naked Security
  59. ^P. Tsokkis and E. Stavrou, "A password generator tool to increase users' awareness on bad password construction strategies," 2018 International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC), Rome, 2018, pp. 1-5, doi:10.1109/ISNCC.2018.8531061.
  60. ^"Password". Archived from the original on April 23, 2007. Retrieved 2012-05-20.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link). cs.columbia.edu
  61. ^Schneier, Real-World PasswordsArchived 2008-09-23 at the Wayback Machine. Schneier.com. Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  62. ^MySpace Passwords Aren't So DumbArchived 2014-03-29 at the Wayback Machine. Wired.com (2006-10-27). Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  63. ^"CERT IN-98.03". 1998-07-16. Retrieved 2009-09-09.
  64. ^ abUrbina, Ian; Davis, Leslye (November 23, 2014). "The Secret Life of Passwords". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 28, 2014.
  65. ^"Consumer Password Worst Practices (pdf)"(PDF). Archived(PDF) from the original on 2011-07-28.
  66. ^"NATO site hacked". The Register. 2011-06-24. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
  67. ^"Anonymous Leaks 90,000 Military Email Accounts in Latest Antisec Attack". 2011-07-11. Archived from the original on 2017-07-14.
  68. ^"Military Password Analysis". 2011-07-12. Archived from the original on 2011-07-15.
  69. ^"The Quest to Replace Passwords (pdf)"(PDF). IEEE. 2012-05-15. Archived(PDF) from the original on 2015-03-19. Retrieved 2015-03-11.
  70. ^ ab"Gates predicts death of the password". CNET. 2004-02-25. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2015-03-14.
  71. ^Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2005/434Archived 2006-06-14 at the Wayback Machine. eprint.iacr.org. Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  72. ^T Matsumoto. H Matsumotot; K Yamada & S Hoshino (2002). "Impact of artificial 'Gummy' Fingers on Fingerprint Systems". Proc SPIE. Optical Security and Counterfeit Deterrence Techniques IV. 4677: 275. Bibcode:2002SPIE.4677..275M. doi:10.1117/12.462719. S2CID 16897825.
  73. ^Using AJAX for Image Passwords – AJAX Security Part 1 of 3Archived 2006-06-16 at the Wayback Machine. waelchatila.com (2005-09-18). Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  74. ^Butler, Rick A. (2004-12-21) Face in the CrowdArchived 2006-06-27 at the Wayback Machine. mcpmag.com. Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  75. ^graphical password or graphical user authentication (GUA)Archived 2009-02-21 at the Wayback Machine. searchsecurity.techtarget.com. Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  76. ^Ericka Chickowski (2010-11-03). "Images Could Change the Authentication Picture". Dark Reading. Archived from the original on 2010-11-10.
  77. ^"Confident Technologies Delivers Image-Based, Multifactor Authentication to Strengthen Passwords on Public-Facing Websites". 2010-10-28. Archived from the original on 2010-11-07.
  78. ^User Manual for 2-Dimensional Key (2D Key) Input Method and SystemArchived 2011-07-18 at the Wayback Machine. xpreeli.com. (2008-09-08) . Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  79. ^Kok-Wah Lee "Methods and Systems to Create Big Memorizable Secrets and Their Applications" Patent US20110055585Archived 2015-04-13 at the Wayback Machine, WO2010010430. Filing date: December 18, 2008
  80. ^Kotadia, Munir (25 February 2004). "Gates predicts death of the password". ZDNet. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
  81. ^"IBM Reveals Five Innovations That Will Change Our Lives within Five Years". IBM. 2011-12-19. Archived from the original on 2015-03-17. Retrieved 2015-03-14.
  82. ^Honan, Mat (2012-05-15). "Kill the Password: Why a String of Characters Can't Protect Us Anymore". Wired. Archived from the original on 2015-03-16. Retrieved 2015-03-14.
  83. ^"Google security exec: 'Passwords are dead'". CNET. 2004-02-25. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2015-03-14.
  84. ^"Authentciation at Scale". IEEE. 2013-01-25. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2015-03-12.
  85. ^Mims, Christopher (2014-07-14). "The Password Is Finally Dying. Here's Mine". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2015-03-13. Retrieved 2015-03-14.
  86. ^"Russian credential theft shows why the password is dead". Computer World. 2014-08-14. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2015-03-14.
  87. ^"NSTIC head Jeremy Grant wants to kill passwords". Fedscoop. 2014-09-14. Archived from the original on 2015-03-18. Retrieved 2015-03-14.
  88. ^"Specifications Overview". FIDO Alliance. 2014-02-25. Archived from the original on 2015-03-15. Retrieved 2015-03-15.
  89. ^"A Research Agenda Acknowledging the Persistence of Passwords". IEEE Security&Privacy. Jan 2012. Archived from the original on 2015-06-20. Retrieved 2015-06-20.
  90. ^Bonneau, Joseph; Herley, Cormac; Oorschot, Paul C. van; Stajano, Frank (2012). "The Quest to Replace Passwords: A Framework for Comparative Evaluation of Web Authentication Schemes". Technical Report - University of Cambridge. Computer Laboratory. Cambridge, UK: University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory. ISSN 1476-2986. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  91. ^Bonneau, Joseph; Herley, Cormac; Oorschot, Paul C. van; Stajano, Frank (2012). The Quest to Replace Passwords: A Framework for Comparative Evaluation of Web Authentication Schemes. 2012 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. San Francisco, CA. pp. 553–567. doi:10.1109/SP.2012.44.

External links[edit]

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Password

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  • Источник: https://docs.fedoraproject.org/en-US/quick-docs/reset-root-password/

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    Password policy recommendations

    As the admin of an organization, you're responsible for setting the password policy for users in your organization. Setting the password policy can be complicated and confusing, and this article provides recommendations to make your organization more secure against password attacks.

    To determine how often Microsoft 365 passwords expire in your organization, see Set password expiration policy for Microsoft 365.

    For more information about Microsoft 365 passwords, see:

    Reset passwords (article)

    Set an individual user's password to never expire (article)

    Let users reset their own passwords (article)

    Resend a user's password - Admin Help (article)

    Understanding password recommendations

    Good password practices fall into a few broad categories:

    • Resisting common attacks This involves the choice of where users enter passwords (known and trusted devices with good malware detection, validated sites), and the choice of what password to choose (length and uniqueness).

    • Containing successful attacks Containing successful hacker attacks is about limiting exposure to a specific service, or preventing that damage altogether, if a user's password gets stolen. For example, ensuring that a breach of your social networking credentials doesn't make your bank account vulnerable, or not letting a poorly guarded account accept reset links for an important account.

    • Understanding human nature Many valid password practices fail in the face of natural human behaviors. Understanding human nature is critical because research shows that almost every rule you impose on your users will result in a weakening of password quality. Length requirements, special character requirements, and password change requirements all result in normalization of passwords, which makes it easier for attackers to guess or crack passwords.

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    The primary goal of a more secure password system is password diversity. You want your password policy to contain lots of different and hard to guess passwords. Here are a few recommendations for keeping your organization as secure as possible.

    • Maintain an 8-character minimum length requirement

    • Don't require character composition requirements. For example, *&(^%$

    • Don't require mandatory periodic password resets for user accounts

    • Ban common passwords, to keep the most vulnerable passwords out of your system

    • Educate your users to not re-use their organization passwords for non-work related purposes

    • Enforce registration for multi-factor authentication

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    Password length requirements (greater than about 10 characters) can result in user behavior that is predictable and undesirable. For example, users who are required to have a 16-character password may choose repeating patterns like fourfourfourfour or passwordpassword that meet the character length requirement but aren't hard to guess. Additionally, length requirements increase the chances that users will adopt other insecure practices, such as writing their passwords down, re-using them, or storing them unencrypted in their documents. To encourage users to think about a unique password, we recommend keeping a reasonable 8-character minimum length requirement.

    Requiring the use of multiple character sets

    Password complexity requirements reduce key space and cause users to act in predictable ways, doing more harm than good. Most systems enforce some level of password complexity requirements. For example, passwords need characters from all three of the following categories:

    • uppercase characters

    • lowercase characters

    • non-alphanumeric characters

    Most people use similar patterns, for example, a capital letter in the first position, a symbol in the last, and a number in the last 2. Cyber criminals know this, so they run their dictionary attacks using the most common substitutions, "$" for "s", "@" for "a," "1" for "l". Forcing your users to choose a combination of upper, lower, digits, special characters has a negative effect. Some complexity requirements even prevent users from using secure and memorable passwords, and force them into coming up with less secure and less memorable passwords.

    Successful Patterns

    In contrast, here are some recommendations in encouraging password diversity.

    Ban common passwords

    The most important password requirement you should put on your users when creating passwords is to ban the use of common passwords to reduce your organization's susceptibility to brute force password attacks. Common user passwords include: abcdefg, password, monkey.

    Educate users to not re-use organization passwords anywhere else

    One of the most important messages to get across to users in your organization is to not re-use their organization password anywhere else. The use of organization passwords in external websites greatly increases the likelihood that cyber criminals will compromise these passwords.

    Enforce Multi-Factor Authentication registration

    Make sure your users update contact and security information, like an alternate email address, phone number, or a device registered for push notifications, so they can respond to security challenges and be notified of security events. Updated contact and security information helps users verify their identity if they ever forget their password, or if someone else tries to take over their account. It also provides an out of band notification channel in the case of security events such as login attempts or changed passwords.

    To learn more, see Set up multi-factor authentication.

    Enable risk-based multi-factor authentication

    Risk-based multi-factor authentication ensures that when our system detects suspicious activity, it can challenge the user to ensure that they are the legitimate account owner.

    Next steps

    Want to know more about managing passwords? Here is some recommended reading:

    Related content

    Reset passwords (article)
    Set an individual user's password to never expire (article)
    Let users reset their own passwords (article)
    Resend a user's password - Admin Help (article)

    Источник: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/microsoft-365/admin/misc/password-policy-recommendations

    Active Password Changer 11.0 Crack + License Key Full Download 2021

    Active Password Changer 11.0 Crack is a solution that resets local passwords and accounts for Windows NT / 2000 / XP / Vista 2003 / 2008 / 2012 / Windows 7 / Windows 8 / Windows 10 systems when you forget the password of the administrator, blocked, deactivated or locked out your user account. [email protected] Changer also gives the capability to regulate that user accounts are allowed to log on to your computer, during which days and times of the week, which helps avoid logging onto your account (or remove that kind of prohibition). This program has a simple wizard-like user interface, supports multiple disc drives.

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    Active Password Changer License Key Interesting program for resetting the login password to a personal computer. The application examines the file system for documents to encrypt the data of a certain user. After that, the application will reset the settings given and use the information saved in the folders. List of local users presented; the one to reset how to use active password changer - Crack Key For U or parameters should be chosen. Active Password Changer Crack is the program that is utilized to recover the passwords and usernames in the characteristics of Windows. The main function of the app is to reset the local administrator password. In the Windows system. This is useful when someone forgets the original administrator password.

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    Active Password Changer Professional 6 Crack Download

    Active Password Changer Professional 6 Crack Download Full Version Free

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    Active Password Changer Professional 6 Crack is one of the best software Windows password cracker, which is designed to not only enter a Windows account with a blank password to force FL Studio 20.8.4 Crack With Activation No Free DOWNLOAD 2021, but also enables you to manage the prohibition of registration (add or remove ban login). Active password changer Professional is compatible with almost every Windows operating system either before, also the last, including Windows NT, 2000, XP, Vista, 7, 8, 10, or Server 2000, 2003, 2008 and 2012 32-bit and and 64 bits. It also allows you to reset passwords, and change the attributes of the disk file systems / NTFS / NTFS5, FAT16 / FAT32
    Active Password Changer Professional 6Main Features:
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    Источник: https://cracksfiles.com/2018/06/active-password-changer-professional-6-crack-download/

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    2 Replies to “How to use active password changer - Crack Key For U”

    1. Jimmy Dishkawnt dude... it’s never even confirmed that the Virus even came from Asia

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